عوامل موثر بر پذیرش فن آوری انبار داده ها: مطالعه صنعت بانکداری در تایوان
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|18248||2004||21 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Decision Support Systems, Volume 37, Issue 1, April 2004, Pages 1–21
Previous literature suggests that various factors play crucial roles in the adoption of an information system; however, there is little empirical research about the factors affecting adoption of data warehouse technology, particularly in a single information technology intensive industry. In this study, we used a survey to investigate the factors influencing adoption of data warehouse technology in the banking industry in Taiwan. A total of 50 questionnaires were mailed to CIOs in domestic banks. The response rate was 60%. Discriminant analysis was employed to test hypotheses. The results revealed that factors such as support from the top management, size of the bank, effect of champion, internal needs, and competitive pressure would affect the adoption of data warehouse technology. The results and conclusions from this study may be a good reference for global banks in these aforementioned countries to establish and develop operational strategies, which in turn will facilitate the implementation in overseas branches.
With keener and stronger competition, enterprises are much more eager in getting immediate and accurate information to make better decisions. Furthermore, with the rapidly growing need for large amounts of information, enterprises' traditional database is incapable of effectively handling the demands of increasing online information retrieval, access, update, and maintenance. This inability greatly impacts businesses in a way that the management level cannot utilize internal data efficiently and effectively to assist reliable decision-making in a timely manner. As a result, it is such a critical issue for every business to seek for ways and/or means to access, store, maintain, and utilize the massive data efficiently. Businesses constantly require a database environment with high flexibility, better adaptability, and good support to make a decision. During the past years, academia and industry have continuously offered different solutions to create such an aforementioned environment. One of the possible alternatives is to adopt data warehouse technology. According to Inmon , data warehouse technology was described as, “Collecting data from several dispersed sources to build a central data warehouse. Then users can use appropriate data-analyzing tools to store and analyze needed data.” The main application of data warehouse is to process every dimension analysis in internal data by utilizing data survey technology, and it can be a reference of decision-making for enterprises. For example, online analytical processing (OLAP) capability can be a convenient and effective way to query data immediately and to provide various information using multidimensional querying to match with users' demands. The banking industry is categorized as one industry with high information demands. Information technology is taken as a key tool to improve the quality of service and to gain a competitive advantage. The Taiwanese banking industry has showed a great interest in adopting data warehouse technology and has started to undertake the challenges of implementing it in order to manage the existing internal and external heterogeneous database. According to the recent research of Wen et al. , the adoption of data warehouse technology, which requires huge capital spending and also consumes a good deal of development time, has a very high possibility of failure. Even most of the companies adopting data warehouse technology have successfully accomplished the expected goals established before adoption, and 20% of companies still fail . As a result, it will be critical and essential to have a detailed understanding of critical success factors to ensure the successful adoption of data warehouse technology. Unfortunately, in the area of the adoption of data warehouse technology, most of the research available focused on the technological and operational aspects, and there is very little research to consider the factors in the managerial and strategic levels. In addition, there is a little prior research to study the key factors affecting adoption of data warehouse technology, especially for the enterprises in Asia. Asia, including Singapore, Taiwan, and mainland China, is a fast-growing market. Many western banks have great interest in establishing Asian branches in cities such as Shanghai, Singapore, Hong Kong, and Taipei. To this end, this study, which reports valuable empirical data on the adoption of data warehouse for the banking industry in Taiwan, can be easily applied to mainland China, Singapore, Hong Kong, and Taiwan, since these are all with the same culture and speak the same language. It is obvious that the results, findings, and conclusions drawn from this study can be a good reference for global banks to establish and develop operational strategies for their eastern branches. With a systematic examination about the existing situation and future development of data warehouse technology in the banking industry of Taiwan, this study also investigates the factors affecting the adoption of data warehouse technology. The results presented in this manuscript can certainly help those banks, which might wish to adopt data warehouse technology by overcoming potential obstacles, and hence reducing the high risk of failure during implementation. For other industries intending to adopt data warehouse technology, the results and findings from this study can be used as a case study for the adoption of data warehouse technology in the near future. Furthermore, academia can use the findings of this study as a basis to initiate other related studies in the data warehouse area.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Given the fact that a number of businesses jumped on board to use the data warehouse technology, the users need to be careful that this technology may not be a perfect solution for all different organizations to resolve every data-related problem. Consequently, many adoption-related factors must be carefully and fully evaluated before any adoption attempt is made. The adoption of data warehouse technology is not just a simple activity to purchase the required hardware and software, but rather a complex process to establish a sophisticated and integrated information system. The plug and play situation may not be the case to adopt the data warehouse technology. The results of this study indicated that all factors in the organizational dimension and one factor in environmental dimension are important to take into account. Specifically, these factors include support from top management, the size of the bank, the internal needs, the degree of business competition, and the existence of champions. These aforementioned factors have a noticeable impact on the decision to adopt the data warehouse technology in the banking industry in Taiwan. It comes as no surprise that top management plays an important role in the process of adopting data warehouse technology. If the top management level supports the adoption of the data warehouse technology, the assistance for the required resources will be easily acquired. The project team members, hence, will worry less about the shortage of resources and can focus more of their attention onto the other matters related to the adoption of data warehouse technology. The results of this study actually validate this belief as other prior research did. The top management support is truly one of the most important factors affecting the adoption of data warehouse technology. Specifically, the top management support factor is the most significant, discriminant index to distinguish whether or not to adopt the data warehouse technology in the banking industry in Taiwan. Furthermore, this finding is in line with the findings to adopt other types of information technologies. Data warehouse technology is an expensive, and hence risky, undertaking. Generally speaking, it will cost in excess of US$1 million to build a full-scale data warehouse application/system. For most domestic banks in Taiwan, it is quite a large expenditure for a single software application (to most CEOs of banks in Taiwan). Given this information, the authors believe that the size of the bank should play an important role in the decision-making processes for the banking industry in Taiwan. In this study, the values of discriminant loading and discriminant coefficient of the size of the bank are ranked as the second highest and with a p-value of 0.076. That is, in addition to the factor of top management support, the size of the bank is the second most important discriminant index. This study found that there is a significant difference in terms of this factor between the banks decision of whether or not to adopt the data warehouse technology. The capital spending is higher for the banks to adopt the data warehouse technology than the ones who do not adopt it. This finding, again, illustrates that the banks must have sufficient capital resources to take advantages to adopt the data warehouse technology. It would be helpful to adopt data warehouse technology only after the organizational decision-makers completely understand the internal needs to necessitate such an adoption. This study found that the internal needs for banks with the data warehouse technology adopted are significantly higher than those banks that have not yet adopted it. As a result, this study believes that the internal needs also have a great influence on the decision to adopt the data warehouse technology. Champions can be helpful in persuading chief executive officers, department managers, as well as other associates and staffs to adopt the data warehouse technology. In this study, champions are the persons who actively and vigorously promote their personal vision for the adoption of new information technology. The adoption of data warehouse technology may frequently meet some resistance, and champions are expected to diminish such resistance. This study found that there is a difference in “the existence of champions” variables for banks with or without the adoption of data warehouse technology. However, at a 5% level of significance, the analysis result did not support the second hypothesis (since p-value=0.141). As a result, this study still believes that the existence of champions has a great influence on the decision of whether or not to adopt the data warehouse technology. All factors in organizational dimension are important discriminant indexes to distinguish either to adopt or not to adopt the data warehouse technology from a practical perspective (all discriminant loading values >0.3). In addition to practical significance, hypotheses of top management support, the size of banks, and internal needs are all supported by discriminant analysis at 10% level of significance. There are two factors in the environmental dimension. One factor is the degree of business competition and the other one is the selection of vendors. The discriminant loading of the first factor is 0.335. This means that the degree of business competition is an important discriminant index to distinguish between the groups to adopt or not to adopt. Taiwan's government recently established many financial policies which have resulted in much stronger competition in the financial industry. Another challenge to the financial/banking industry will be the emergence of foreign-capital investment after joining the WTO. It is of no doubt that the competition in the banking industry will be much keener, and current Taiwanese banks are anxious to use new information technology to strengthen/improve their competitive advantages. Again, this study discovers that the degree of business competition is one of the important factors affecting the decision to adopt the data warehouse technology. As per previous discussion, the data warehouse technology is not only a software package, and the implementation plan proposed/developed by vendors may not be perfectly tailored for banks. Thus, a bank cannot afford to fully depend on the vendors' suggestion to develop the data warehouse applications/systems. In other words, how to select the right vendor to work with would affect the successful adoption of the data warehouse technology. However, the results of this study did not support this belief in both discriminant loading value and p-value of discriminant coefficient. One possible reason may be that there are not too many vendors of data warehouse technology in Taiwan for banks to select from. Most data warehouse vendors are naturally the representatives of well-established companies from the US, Europe, or Japan. Very few domestic data warehouse products exist in Taiwan's market. Thus, the factor of selection of vendors is not an important discriminant index. In line with the literature reviews discussed earlier, the projects of adoption of data warehouse technology are not only an expensive undertaking, but also need to be carefully evaluated and planned for. Although the project-planning dimension deals with some activities at the operational level, the authors believe that it is important for the organizational decision-makers to take it into consideration before the adoption of data warehouse technology. For this reason, the project-planning dimension is also included in the proposed research model. Factors in this dimension include skills of the project team, the degree of coordination of the organizational resources, the participation of end users, and the assistance from information consultants. The respondents were asked to answer their perceptions regarding the factors included in this dimension based on the adoption of either data warehouse technology (i.e., banks with adoption of data warehouse technology) or other types of information technology (banks without adoption of data warehouse technology). The results revealed that there is no significant difference between these two groups. Although factors of the project dimension are very important for developing both data warehouse technology and other types of information technology, they are not important discriminant indexes to distinguish the decision of whether or not to adopt the data warehouse technology. That is, the adoption of data warehouse technology is a strategic level decision-making based on the findings of this study. The results of this study revealed that 16 out of 30 domestic banks have already adopted or are in the process of adopting/implementing data warehouse technology; 12 out of 30 banks are currently evaluating and studying possible adoption. However, only 2 out of 30 banks abandoned the idea to use data warehouse technology. These findings indicated that the adoption of data warehouse technology is favored by Taiwanese banks as a strategic weapon to be more competitive in the future. As mentioned earlier, the Asian region, including Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan, and mainland China, is a fast growing market. These four areas are all with the same culture and speak the same language. Furthermore, business environments are not too much different after mainland China and Taiwan both joined WTO. The findings of this study are very valuable for the western banks that have an interest in establishing Asian branches or are considering to adopt data warehouse technology. In summary, the major factors influencing the adoption of data warehouse technology are top management support, the size of the bank, internal needs, champions, and the degree of business competition.