تجارب برند ها و هویت ملی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|183||2010||7 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||6357 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Australasian Marketing Journal (AMJ), Volume 18, Issue 4, November 2010, Pages 199–205
Other disciplines know that brands affect national identity, but marketing has barely examined this relationship. We explore the conceptualisation of brands as symbolic and experiential resources from which consumers construct identity narratives. National identity is justified as a construct relevant to contemporary consumers and brands; more than shared culture, national identity encompasses feelings of belonging. We investigate consumer perspectives of how experiences of brands affect national identity. Life history narratives and friendship pair interviews were used to address how national identity is experienced in brands, and which and why brands impact national identity. Findings demonstrate the contribution of brands to consumer feelings of belonging, and of being part of a national community. Common brand consumption practices and shared appreciation for important stories embedded in brand communications assist in linking individuals with the same national identity. This research contributes to understanding brands, especially how consumers use and derive value from them.
Despite the fact that there is little mention of national identity in marketing literature, it is striking to note that advertising is regarded as playing a central role in conceptualising the nation (see, for example, Askew and Wilk, 2002, Frosh, 2007, Millard et al., 2002, Moreno, 2003 and Prideaux, 2009). Writers in the fields of cultural studies, political science, journalism and mass-communication are in no doubt: “advertisements sell more than products; they sell values, ways of life, conceptions of self and ‘Other’” and ideologies including capitalist consumerism, imperialism, racism and patriarchy (Hogan, 2005, p. 193). We know that brands typically bring about such advertisements. We also know that brands are partially consumed and experienced via their advertisements. This raises the question of what the relationship is between brands and national identity. More specifically, from a consumer perspective, how do experiences of brands in everyday life affect the sense of national identity, of feeling and belonging to an imagined national community? There are many unanswered questions regarding brands and national identity. Little is known about the ways that consumers use brands for their own national identity projects. This consumer-centric issue is quite different to the more widely researched matter of nation and place branding (see, for example, Anholt, 2005, Dinnie, 2008, Kotler and Gertner, 2002 and Olins, 2002). The motivation for our study comes initially from a clear gap in the literature; in essence, other disciplines know that brands affect national identity but the branding and consumer research literature has barely recognised this relationship or examined features of it. Thus, research into this unexplored dimension of brand is expected to contribute to better understanding brands, particularly regarding how consumers use them and derive value from them. In the sections that follow we provide a review of the relevant literature and explore the conceptualisation of brands as symbolic and experiential resources from which consumers construct narratives of identity, in particular, national identity. National identity is justified as a construct worthy of study, relevant to contemporary consumers and brands. The research methodology is reported and we discuss the results of in-depth interviews addressing the two research questions; how is national identity experienced in brands? And which brands make people feel the way they do about their own national identity in the New Zealand context? Finally, the practitioner implications from our findings and directions for future research are presented.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
This study demonstrates the contribution of brands to consumer feelings of belonging, and of being part of a national community. Common brand consumption practices and a shared appreciation for important stories embedded in brand communications assist in linking individuals with the same national identity. This in-depth exploratory study showed that multiple aspects of national identity could be identified in television brand advertisements. Local and multinational brands that are frequently advertised make people feel the way they do about their own national identity. However, heritage brands, that do little advertising or whose marketing communications could not be recalled, also contributed strongly to national identity. The common factor amongst all these brands was the provision of stories that were relevant to the brand and that resonated with participants. The fundamental question posed at the beginning of this study, that if advertising plays a central role in conceptualising the nation, what is the relationship between advertised brands and national identity, has been partially answered. Brands are symbolic and experiential resources from which consumers construct narratives of identity at the national level. Our study provides evidence of a link between brands and national identity and, as such, confirms the importance of developing future research investigating how brands affect national identity and how national identity issues affect consumer usage and purchase of brands. The emphasis of this study was discovery oriented and the findings were drawn from interviews with 20 women in a particular demographic cohort within the New Zealand market. This provided a richly contextualised understanding of experiences of New Zealand national identity and brands. However, the study could be developed further by investigating age and gender impacts on effects of brands on national identity, and future research should include replications in other national settings. In summary, future research into how brands affect national identity should have relevance to both researchers and practitioners beyond any particular national market context and should contribute, at the broadest level, to a richer view of the role of brands in consumers’ lives and the communities they are part of. From a practitioner perspective, such future studies would provide a clearer understanding of how aspects of marketing communications can impact on brand value and would contribute to better understanding global brand marketing communications issues. Specific studies might also investigate, (1) what the link is between brand stories with national identity effects and brand purchase/usage; (2) provide a deeper understanding of how brand experiences can be improved so that they resonate with aspects of national identity, and (3) provide insights for brand owners into leveraging brands further though intensifying brand messages and enhancing consumer reception. This new area of branding research has considerable potential for deepening understanding of factors that impact brand value from both consumers’ and brand owners’ perspectives.