انگیزه مصرف کننده ورزشی : جهت گیری های استقلال و کنترل در تنظیم رفتارهای طرفداران
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|1832||2012||13 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||8790 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Sport Management Review, Volume 15, Issue 3, August 2012, Pages 355–367
The vast majority of research on sport consumers fails to utilize a theoretical understanding of motivation to examine behaviour. Self-Determination Theory was used to develop a new understanding of sport consumer motivation. Sport consumer motivation is conceptualized as representing autonomy and control orientations that energize a desire to engage in sport goal directed behaviour to acquire positive benefits. A multi-attribute survey instrument was designed to measure five motivational sub-types and administered to three samples of sport consumers, with the goal of testing for reliability and validity (N = 1222). Structural equation modelling analysis revealed that control orientation of sport motivation regulates desired benefits of socialization and diversion. In contrast, autonomy orientation of motivation regulates desired benefits of performance, esteem and excitement. Sport consumer motivation explained over 60% of the variance in game attendance, media usage, wearing team related clothing and purchasing team related merchandise. Results illustrate how sport consumer motivation represents intrinsically motivated behaviour that treats sport consumption activity as an end in itself as well as extrinsically motivated behaviour as the engagement in an activity is to obtain a separable instrumental outcome from the activity itself.
The role of professionalized competitive sport is recognized by academics in sport management as well as practitioners (Chalip, 2006 and Ziegler, 2007). Individual spending on admission to US sporting events is difficult to accurately gauge but estimates for 2005 range from $5 billion to $16.1 billion (Humphreys & Ruseski, 2010). The breadth and depth of attention to sport as an entertainment product is highlighted by the number and diversity of articles in the recent Journal of Sport Management two special issues on sport events (Dwyer & Fredline, 2008). The role of sport is not lost on government and business as the US sport market is estimated at $425 billion and a significant proportion of the work force in Australia, Japan, United Kingdom, and United States depends on the spectator sport industry (Plunket, 2007). In Australia, individuals who attend sporting events spend on average 2 h and 7 min per day on audio/visual media or 8.8% of his or her leisure time following sport (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2007). Despite this popularity, the spectator sport industry continues to face demand challenges. Constantly changing consumer preferences and evolving technologies will influence the demand for sport entertainment products and services. Within Australia, general population surveys indicate that overall attendance at sporting events has declined from 42.3% in 1999 to 39.9% in 2005 despite more professional teams being introduced (ABS, 2007). The sporting good market from which $8.25 billion in team licensed merchandise is generated has experienced slow growth between 2003 and 2007 in the US (Plunket, 2007). The fragmentation of the TV sport audience into niche and regional markets continues to have implications for lower ratings and broadcast revenues (Klayman, 2007). Management issues related to performance enhancing drugs, behaviour of professional athletes, escalating payroll expenses, and public/private financing of venues continue to dampen public perceptions of sport. Advances through the Internet, satellite TV, and wireless technologies will impact the consumption of sport entertainment requiring new delivery strategies to develop revenue from local residents and tourists. The changing landscape within which the sport spectator industry operates requires a deeper consideration of the interchange between the individual and socio-contextual. A sub-set of sport management research has emerged to understand sport consumers. To date, the social–psychological perspective (Sloan, 1989) remains the dominant approach to explain a range of attitudes and behaviours of sport consumers (Heere and James, 2007, Madrigal, 2006, Pritchard and Funk, 2006 and Seo and Green, 2008). Investigations have led to measurement tools with a number of constructs to examine the relationship between individual motives and sport consumption related activities (Funk et al., 2004, Trail and James, 2001 and Wann, 1995). The bulk of this work embraces the concept that spectator sport provides the opportunity to satisfy individual needs and receive benefits, and specifies motivation as the substantive basis for sport consumer behaviour activity (Funk & James, 2006). This has provided a good foundation to examine how discrete motives combine to elicit motivation and drive behaviour. The current study builds upon this research by examining sport consumer motives under the conceptual guidance of a broad theory of motivation. The literature suggests that domain specific knowledge, such as sport consumer motivation, can be enhanced by grounding research within broad theoretical frameworks (Kyle and Mowen, 2005 and Weick, 1989). In this research, sport consumer motivation is considered from the perspective of Self-Determination Theory (SDT) (Deci & Ryan, 1985a). Within SDT, the regulation of specific sport consumer motives is a product of individual needs and socio-contextual considerations that represents an individual's motivational orientation (Deci & Ryan, 1985a). An individual's motivational orientation can be broadly classified into intrinsic and extrinsic. Intrinsic motivation reflects an autonomy orientation that involves regulating behaviour based on interests, self-endorsed values and ego enhancement. As such, the autonomy orientation of sport consumer motivation would be intrinsically regulated behaviour that treats the sport consumption activity as an end in itself. Extrinsic motivation represents a control orientation that directs how one regulates behaviour based on feelings of stress, tension and public interaction. As such, the control orientation of sport consumer motivation would be intrinsically regulated behaviour that treats the sport consumption activity as means to an end. Together, autonomy and control motivational orientation regulate the type and frequency of sport consumption activities. The present research examines how sport consumers regulate individual motives through autonomy and control orientations that influence attendance at sporting events, use of media to follow sport, and the purchase of licensed sport merchandise. Guided by SDT, the regulation of key sport consumer motives that explain a range of behaviours is examined. SDT has a strong tradition of being applied to understand sport participant motivation and was recently applied to understand motives of youth sport spectators (e.g., Goldstein & Iso-Ahola, 2008). The next section provides a theoretical discussion of motivation followed by a discussion of sport consumer motivation.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
The vast majority of sport consumer research has failed to utilize a broader theoretical framework of motivation to better understand behaviour. The current research integrates recent scale reduction work on sport motives (Funk et al., 2009) with Self-Determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985a) to develop a parsimonious understanding of sport consumer motivation. Sport consumer motivation is conceptualized as a self-determined and volitional state that energizes a desire to engage in sport goal directed behaviour to acquire positive benefits. Conceptually, we argue that sport consumer motivation is regulated by self-determined intrinsic and extrinsic motivation to engage in sport consumption activities. This regulation has two orientations; autonomy orientation and control orientation that energize sub-types of motivation (i.e., motives) that represent cognitive expressions of an individual's desire to seek out a consumption experience to acquire benefits of Socialization, Performance, Excitement, Esteem and Diversion. Empirical results provided support for this motivational orientation approach to explain how often individuals attend games; purchase and wear team related merchandise; and use media sources to follow a sport team. The data analyses revealed that control orientation regulates the desired benefits of socialization and diversion that satisfy important individual needs. Individuals use sport consumption activities as a means for social interaction with other spectators, participants, friends and family as well as escaping daily work and life routines (Madrigal, 2006 and Wann, 1995). These two benefits are less dependent upon the unique nature of the sport product or service. These benefits can be obtained through many consumption experiences beyond sport (e.g., restaurants, theatre, casinos) and reflect extrinsically self-determined goal pursuits of engaging in the sport consumption activities as a means to an end. The autonomy orientation of sport motivation regulates benefits of performance, esteem and excitement that satisfy important needs and had the greatest influence on sport consumer motivation as predicted by SDT. Individuals engage in sport consumption for the atmospheric conditions and emotion produced during a sport spectacle, to experience vicarious achievement depending upon the outcome of athletic competition and to a lesser degree activities for aesthetic pleasure of representation and movement (Sloan, 1989 and Deighton, 1992). These three benefits are more dependent upon the nature of the sport consumption experience (e.g., competition, atmospherics, athletes) as an end result in itself that contributes to perceptions of the meaning of the sport experience (Kahle et al., 1996). Conceptually, autonomy and control orientations reflect different goal directed pursuits to achieve benefit types. However, jointly they provide a good explanation of behaviours related to sport teams that may be either direct or indirect (Pritchard & Funk, 2006). Sport consumer motivation explained 61% of the variance in self-reported number of games attended. These results augment recent efforts to use motivational constructs to explain behaviour. Funk et al.’s (2009) hybrid approach explained 30% of self-reported behaviour using the five SPEED facets. However, by adopting autonomy and control orientations to understand motivation, a more robust understanding of sport consumer behaviour was demonstrated. In addition, the level of sport consumer motivation explained 61% of the frequency of watching the television and reading the newspaper to obtain information about a professional sport team. Finally, sport consumer motivation explained 61% of variance in frequency of wearing team related clothing and purchasing team related merchandise.