سرمایه انسانی و تحول ساختاری: مطالعه از شرکت های تولیدی در بانک های غربی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|18396||2001||20 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||9044 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Business Venturing, Volume 16, Issue 6, November 2001, Pages 575–594
Firms in various worldwide locations are repeatedly subjected to radical political, economic, and social upheavals, including changes in administrative governance, new economic paradigms, natural disasters, and warfare. Perhaps because of the difficulty of conducting research in these environments, little is known regarding the unique requirements of entrepreneurs and their business organizations in such troubled locations. Reliable research and information is necessary in order to design and assess methods of providing institutional support both during, and after, such turmoil. Based on data collected from field interviews over a six-month period, this article examines the characteristics of the owners of 64 small manufacturing businesses that have undergone or were experiencing radical political and economic upheaval in the West Bank town of Ramallah in the Palestinian Territories. The objective of the study is to examine characteristics that influence and assist an entrepreneur's resource allocation decision-making processes. This was done by comparatively assessing the effects on profitability of both firm and individual assets in a highly constrained rapidly changing environment. Understanding this allocation process will lead to more effective targeted assistance in regions experiencing or exiting environmental transitions and upheavals. Human capital theory is utilized in this study as a framework for understanding the comparative response of owners to reallocate resources under the stressful environment of the pre- and post-intifada West Bank territories. While human capital has been well studied in literature examining resource allocation in “typical” competitive environments, our understanding of the influence of human capital in transitional environments is quite limited. This study provides some useful, and perhaps surprising results, from both theoretical and practical perspectives. Owner's human capital (coded from formal education) was found to impact profitability only with the micro firms studied (those with three or fewer employees), however, it is possible that this finding reflects dilution of human capital in comparatively larger small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). One interesting departure from similar studies is that experience was not found to affect the profitability of the firm. Plant capital, on the other hand, was found to be associated with the profitability of only larger SMEs, controlling for business age and experience of the owner. This finding is significant because, presently, institutions such as the World Bank, NGOs and national development agencies focus their efforts primarily on providing credit to small businesses, whereas training and education currently are somewhat out of favor. A model is proposed in this study comparing resource requirements according to both the size and the productivity/technological level of the firm. The object is to explain the reduced importance of human capital and experience in environments of radical transition, specifically the arbitrary nature and lack of predictability of transitional governance, and the increased importance of financial capital only with large SMEs. It is argued that skills acquired in functional expertise do not necessarily prepare an entrepreneur for the abrupt environmental transformations characteristic of tumultuous political events. This research suggests that owners are in a better position to maximize their cognitive skills in decision making within smaller organizations. However, these skills are naturally diffused and so less effective at influencing the outcomes of somewhat larger organizations. Larger SMEs are necessarily more capital intensive and more bureaucratic, and so the cumulative human capital at the organizational level may be more important to allocative efficiency than the human capital of the individual firm owner. Further, larger SMEs require organizational expertise that may not be captured in the individual level characteristics of entrepreneurs. This research suggests that efforts to support such environments should carefully consider the size of the firms in question before designing and implementing programs of assistance, differentiating microenterprises from small businesses. In particular, the findings of this study suggest that smaller firms experiencing rapid environmental upheaval will benefit most from formal education, training and advice. Larger firms, in contrast, appear to benefit most from loans providing traditional capital support, and from advice across the entire firm's human capital base, particularly regarding organizational management and delegation skills.
What happens to small business and entrepreneurial ventures when the “rules change” due to political, social, and legal transformations? Which entrepreneurs are best able to negotiate radical environmental changes? This study examines the characteristics of the owners of 64 small manufacturing businesses that have undergone radical political and economic upheaval in the West Bank town of Ramallah, in the Palestinian Territories. While considerable literature examines the societal entrepreneurial climate in terms of environmental suitability toward the promotion of new ventures and small businesses Kets De Vries 1977, Hannan and Freeman 1977 and Gartner 1985, the study of small business in environments experiencing radical administrative change and societal upheaval has been scant. Limited reports suggest that such radical change can virtually devastate an entire generation of entrepreneurs Dana and France 1996 and Shahwan 1993. In the former Soviet Union the outcomes include ethnic divisiveness, consumer desperation, and widespread business corruption (Gubin et al., 1993).1 In general, studies comparatively examining factors affecting the success of small business during political/economic upheavals are unavailable, perhaps due to the environmentals difficulties and general hazards of conducting such research. What has been particularly lacking in the literature is an analysis of the individual factors that assist entrepreneurs in negotiating such transformation. Because hostile business environments and environmental change are a common component of many industries and business cycles, strategic repertoires are available that allow flexible firms to use a climate of uncertainty for competitive advantage (Calantaone and di Benedetto, 1994). Thus, firms may harness their resources to lessen environmental threats. However, such strategies are predicated on fundamental assumptions of competitive market institutions, including institutional regulatory controls and financial longevity and stability. Firms are not conventionally in a position to capitalize strategically on the overnight closure of banking, regulatory, and commercial market relationships (Ardishvili et al., 1993) such as those experienced recently in the West Bank.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
This study demonstrates the importance of examining human capital and resource allocation in terms of the broader environmental conditions, highlighting the case of organizations exposed to rapid environmental changes. Following a period of rapid political and economic upheaval, this research indicates that the human capital characteristics of micro firm owner/entrepreneurs are very closely correlated to their comparative success. In contrast, human capital characteristics of the owners of somewhat larger firms were found to be less important. Surprisingly, work experience failed to demonstrate enhanced profitability for either group. Assisting businesses after structural upheavals, ranging from war in the Balkans, to nation building in the Middle East, is certain to become an increasingly important mandate for bilateral and multilateral organizations as well as NGOs. This study strongly indicates that effective support rests on an understanding of the heterogeneity of SMEs—even those in a single economic sector. Variances in levels of technology, organizational size, complementary resources, and owner characteristics strongly suggest a highly individualized approach is required to effectively develop, support, and rehabilitate these business environments. With certain micro firms, for example, the provision of training or formal education may be a better strategy than the provision of capital or loans, the more ubiquitous support mechanism. When financial capital is provided as a means of support and development, this research suggests that agencies consider concentrating on larger firms. The findings of this research, while preliminary and requiring further confirmation, should provide helpful insights into strategies of assisting and insulating other small businesses that have experienced major environmental upheavals. In particular, the study challenges commonly held assumptions regarding the importance of business experience, formal education, and of plant capital, highlighting the need to assess comparatively the heterogeneity of the SME sector. This study suggests that successful intervention will require additional research in the areas of organizational expertise and technological capabilities of SMEs in such environments.