رفتار خرید اینترنتی مصرف کنندگان در شیلی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|1841||2013||9 صفحه PDF||29 صفحه WORD|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Business Research, Available online 27 January 2013
پیشینه ی نظری و فرضیه ها
هنجار های شخصی
طرح تحقیق و روش شناسی
نتایج مدل اندازه گیری
نتایج آزمایش فرضیه
بحث و نتایج
بحث در مورد یافته ها
Despite the potential for e-commerce growth in Latin America, studies investigating factors that influence consumers' Internet purchasing behavior are very limited. This research addresses this limitation with a consumer centric study in Chile using the Theory of Reasoned Action. The study examines Chilean consumers' beliefs, perceptions of risk, and subjective norms about continued purchasing on the Internet. Findings show that consumers' attitude towards purchasing on the Internet is an influential factor on intentions to continue Internet purchasing. Additionally, compatibility and result demonstrability are influential factors on attitudes towards this behavior. The study contributes to the important area of technology post adoption behavior.
Developed countries, such as the United States, and those in Europe, have embraced the Internet for commercial purposes and many organizations use the Internet as part of their multi-channel retail offering. For example, in 2010 US retail e-commerce sales are anticipated to increase by 12.7% to $152 billion, the largest gain in the last 2 years (Grau, 2010). Western Europe, particularly the United Kingdom, France and Germany, lead the world in retail e-commerce sales and this situation is anticipated to continue into 2012, surpassing $200 billion (von Abrams, 2010). However, in less developed countries, such as those in Latin America, companies' take up of e-commerce is much slower (Grandón et al., 2010 and Nasco, Grandón and Mykytn, 2008). In Chile, for instance, despite achieving fairly substantial increases in business to business (B2B) online transactions in recent years, the low level of business to consumer (B2C) transactions suggests that this area of e-commerce is still not well developed (Nasco, Grandón, et al., 2008). The limited growth of B2C e-commerce in this region is somewhat surprising given that the number of Internet users in Latin America increased by 853% between 2000 and 2009 (NewMedia TrendWatch, 2009). Early studies, particularly in western countries, theorize about how consumers might use the Internet (e.g., Hoffman and Novak, 1996, Jarvenpaa and Todd, 1997 and Peterson et al., 1997). There is also extensive research investigating consumer attitudes and behaviors related to making online purchases (e.g., Bhatnagar et al., 2000, Fram and Grady, 1995, Garbarino and Strahilevitz, 2004, Jarvenpaa and Tractinsky, 1999, Jarvenpaa et al., 2000, Peterson and Balasubramanian, 2002, Swinyard and Smith, 2003, Van den Poel and Leunis, 1999, Vijayasarathy and Jones, 2000 and Yang and Jun, 2002). Of particular interest to this paper is research that examines facilitators and barriers to using the Internet for purchasing (e.g., Andrews et al., 2007, Bhatnagar et al., 2000, Biswas and Biswas, 2004, Forsythe et al., 2006, Jarvenpaa et al., 2000, McCole et al., 2010, Qureshi et al., 2009, Urban et al., 2009, Van den Poel and Leunis, 1999 and Wang et al., 2004). However, studies that investigate what factors influence Latin American consumers' use of the Internet for commercial purposes are limited (Nasco, Grandón, et al., 2008). An important issue, then, is the selection of a theoretical framework to examine consumers' intentions to make Internet purchases. A number of theories of consumer acceptance of technology can be considered, many of which stem from Fishbein and Ajzen's (1975) theory of reasoned action (TRA). This theory maintains that an individual's intentions towards a behavior are a direct function of attitudes and subjective norms or social influence. The theory of reasoned action was later extended to the theory of planned behavior (TPB) through the inclusion of perceived behavioral control to account for non-volitional behaviors, such as those in organizational settings (Ajzen, 1985). Examples of extensions of these two models include the very parsimonious technology acceptance model (TAM, Davis, 1989) and Moore and Benbasat's (1991) consumer acceptance of technology model using the perceived characteristics of innovating (PCI) scale derived from Rogers (1995) innovation diffusion theory. In more recent times, two additional models are available, the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT, Venkatesh, Morris, Davis, & Davis, 2003) and the consumer acceptance of technology model (CAT, Kulviwat et al., 2007 and Nasco, Kulviwat, Kumar and Bruner, 2008). Taken together, these models contribute to how researchers can examine the adoption, diffusion and continued use of technologies through operationalizing the four key constructs from Fishbein and Ajzen's TRA/TPB models, and the addition of moderating or mediating variables to increase the models' explanatory power (Kulviwat et al., 2007, Nasco, Kulviwat, Kumar and Bruner, 2008 and Venkatesh et al., 2003). While recognizing the extensive research behind consumer adoption models, the intention is to examine Chilean consumers' attitudes and behavior towards purchasing on the Internet using TRA to achieve two objectives. First, this study provides a counterpoint to the important research by Nasco, Grandón, et al. (2008) with Chilean managers in small to medium size enterprises (SMEs). The argument is that SME managers should understand their own intentions to adopt e-commerce, but, more importantly, what factors influence their potential consumers' take-up of Internet purchasing. Using the same theory as Nasco, Grandón, et al. (2008) provides a comparable study to identify suitable managerial insights. Second, applications of TRA to consumers' intentions to adopt Internet purchasing form a significant body of consumer behavior research (Taylor & Strutton, 2009), particularly in the United States. However, researchers argue that e-commerce adoption research applied in developed countries may not necessarily be as relevant for under developed countries, such as those in Latin America, due to differing cultural dimensions (Gong, 2009, Grandón et al., 2010 and Nasco, Grandón and Mykytn, 2008). To this date, studies that use TRA to examine consumers' Internet purchasing in Latin American countries are not available. The authors argue that the intuitive nature of TRA reinforces the applicability of this model to an investigation of Internet purchasing behavior in Chile. The objective of this study, therefore, is to address the limitations noted in the consumer behavior research, using Chile as a representative Latin American developing country. Chile is the fourth largest Internet population in Latin America (NewMedia TrendWatch, 2009). In 2006, Chile was identified by the Global Competitiveness Report as the highest ranking country in terms of potential sustained economic growth of all Latin American countries (Nasco, Grandón, et al., 2008). Additionally, a Chilean Chamber of Commerce study found that 29% of consumers admit to using the Internet for purchasing products and services during the Christmas period (Etcheverry & Nazar, 2009). Thus, research regarding perceptions about, and use of the Internet in the Chilean population (e.g., Maldifassi & Canessa, 2010) suggests opportunities for a study on consumers' Internet purchase behaviors in this country.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
5.1. Discussion of the findings Most research into online purchasing behavior focuses mainly on developed countries due to their strong retail e-commerce sales (von Abrams, 2010). Limited consideration is paid to drivers of Internet purchasing behavior in less developed regions such as Latin America, where companies' take up of e-commerce has been slower (Grandón et al., 2010 and Nasco, Grandón and Mykytn, 2008). The study addresses this limitation by examining the factors that influence Chilean consumers' attitudes toward purchasing on the Internet and their intentions to continue this behavior. The authors specified nine hypotheses tested within a TRA theoretical framework drawing upon extant literature conducted in non-Latin American countries. The findings provide interesting insights into Internet purchase behavior in Chile, particularly in relation to drivers of continuance behavior which is becoming a more important focus in the technology acceptance literature (e.g., Choi et al., 2011 and Son and Han, 2011). In line with other studies (e.g., Kulviwat et al., 2009), attitude towards purchasing on the Internet was significant and had a strong positive influence on intentions to continue with the behavior. This is consistent with Hernández et al. (2010), who also find that attitude has an effect on intentions to continue Internet purchasing for experienced participants. Compatibility and result demonstrability, factors from the PCI scale), influenced attitude. Compatibility and results demonstrability are often the most important factors identified in the literature for online purchase behavior (e.g., Andrews et al., 2007, Forsythe et al., 2006 and Wang et al., 2010) but often go together with relative advantage which is usually the strongest factor. For the Chilean sample, the importance of compatibility rather than relative advantage suggests that purchasing on the Internet is more of a lifestyle fit than an improvement over existing forms of purchasing. A proffered explanation for this result is that the participants in the study are better educated than the general Chilean population. Based on their prior experience with online purchasing, they may already be very clear about the advantages offered through purchasing online, which is why this purchasing method is so compatible with their lifestyles. Further, the participants are able to identify how purchasing on the Internet fits with their modern lives. This point is evident in the significance of results demonstrability suggesting that they can clearly articulate this behavior to others. Maldifassi and Canessa (2010) show that respondents belonging to a certain socioeconomic level, as is the case with this study's sample, are more likely to perceive personal benefits from using the Internet, and by inference this could flow on to making Internet purchases. Thus, the authors argue that compatibility and results demonstrability move beyond forming an attitude, as attitude becomes less important with experience. Instead, such beliefs are easier to access from memory ( Fazio and Zanna, 1981 and Lee et al., 2002) and become the lasting and realistic perceptions that predict an individual's ongoing behavioral intentions. Ease of use does not influence attitude. This may result from the sample's socioeconomic stratum and being very familiar with using the Internet, particularly as higher education facilitates more extensive use of computing and Internet technologies (Maldifassi & Canessa, 2010). Therefore, concerns regarding its ease of use become less apparent with this experience. Visibility does not have a significant relationship with attitude which most likely arises from online purchasing not being a social or shared activity. The hypothesis for perceived risk was not supported, which is interesting in a country where cultural concerns over risk avoidance are considered important. Previous studies show that, in general, people with more online purchasing experiences have lower perceptions of risk with the Internet (e.g., Forsythe et al., 2006 and Wang et al., 2010). In a Chilean context, Bianchi and Andrews (2012) find that consumers' perception of risk, while significant, is only influential on attitudes and is not a barrier to their intentions to continue purchasing online. This study's findings suggest that, despite being a collectivist culture with high risk avoidance, perceived risk is no longer an inhibitor for those who intend to continue Internet purchasing. It appears, then, that for Latin American people with greater experience of the Internet and Internet purchasing, perceived risk has a diminishing effect on their attitude and intentions to continue this behavior ( Bianchi and Andrews, 2012 and Gong, 2009). The educational background of the sample may also be relevant here, as undertaking higher education means that they have greater exposure to the Internet and Internet technologies (Maldifassi & Canessa, 2010). As such, they may be better able to understand and mitigate the risks. TRA specifies that subjective norms relating to important referents in an individual's social network have a direct influence on intentions, as is the case in a number of technology acceptance studies (e.g., Fitzgerald, 2004, Kulviwat et al., 2009 and Venkatesh et al., 2003). Thus, inferring that in a highly collectivistic culture, some social influences would affect either attitude or intentions to purchase on the Internet would be logical. This inference would also be consistent with the notion that people in Latin American countries may prefer to obtain information from personal networks that share common beliefs (Gong, 2009). However, the same is not the case for findings related to either the offline or online subjective norms. Such results suggest that any attempts to apply normative pressure on individuals to purchase goods or services on the Internet through social networks both on and offline, are less likely to influence this behavior. As such, this finding does not support Gong's (2009) proposition that online interpersonal communication channels might influence the diffusion of e-commerce. Practitioners and marketing researchers are investigating how to utilize social media for revenue streams (e.g. Wang, Yu, & Wei, 2012). However, findings for the online subjective norms in this Latin American context suggest a more cautious approach when the time comes to extend the online environment to social media for commercial purposes. 5.2. Theoretical contribution Applying TRA in the context of a developing country, in this case Chile as a representative country in Latin America, contributes to research that supports the generalizability of such theoretical models outside Western applications. The findings further suggest that researchers should not assume that populations in less developed countries, particularly those in certain socioeconomic strata, are not engaged with the benefits of online purchasing. While not a comparative cross-cultural study; cultural dimensions, such as Chile being a collectivist culture with high uncertainty avoidance, are not evident in the findings relating to attitudes and intentions to continue online purchasing. However, the findings contribute to the ongoing generalizability of some of the key factors in the Moore and Benbasat PCI scale in a Latin American context. In keeping with Fitzgerald (2004), the model tested included subjective norms from participants' online communication networks and extended to include Facebook and Twitter, both highly diffused social network communication sources. While the findings suggest a lack of influence from these sources at the present time, this may not always be the case. Further applications of TRA models should incorporate online social influence as a form of consumer socialization that can affect attitudes, norms and behaviors (Wang et al., 2012). Therefore, this study provides a springboard to support the inclusion of online subjective norms in TRA models. Doing so would be important as Latin American companies look toward incorporating social media into their marketing communications. 5.3. Managerial contributions The findings of this study are complementary to those of Grandón et al. (2010) and Nasco, Grandón, et al. (2008) that examine intentions to adopt e-commerce by SME managers. Taking a consumer centric perspective of B2C e-commerce the findings reported here support the importance of Chilean SME managers moving ahead with the adoption of e-commerce in order to tap into what appears to be a need in the population. Furthermore, the findings support Gong's (2009) proposition that a rapid diffusion of B2C e-commerce in Latin America may be anticipated as consumers move past the initial adoption stage and become more appreciative of the benefits that purchasing online provides. While perceived risk does not appear to inhibit online purchasing, managers should always ensure that risk reduction strategies are in force so that consumers' attitudes towards their websites are positive. The findings are also of benefit to companies that already have high recognition among Chilean consumers, having been part of their shopping habits over several generations. Thus, existing bricks and mortar companies can be more confident of attracting customers when they move to online channels. Marketers face pressure to engage with their customers through electronic channels to participate in some of the talking, participating, sharing and networking activity identified by Jones (2010). However, the findings of this study suggest that at present, social influence from important others in electronic channels is limited. This finding may result from the higher level of education of the sample, and a more generalized sample may show a greater likelihood that marketers could use online influences more effectively. Taken together, these findings support the need for further investigation of post adoption behavior in technology acceptance to provide managerial insights into the factors that explain and support continued use of modern technologies for purchasing products and services.