پایگاه داده GIS متحد در زیرساخت های گردشگری چرخه ای
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|18503||2012||8 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||4124 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Tourism Management, Volume 33, Issue 6, December 2012, Pages 1554–1561
Bicycles are used in the Czech Republic for commuting to work and for leisure time activities. This is reflected in the cycle trail administrators' offer to make the existing network denser, design new routes, mark their courses and install a complementary cycle infrastructure. However, extensive growth of these activities in the last years has led to the loss of overview information on the overall cycle trail network. That is the reason for producing a methodology of capturing and representing the information. A unified GIS database on the cycle infrastructure (UDCI) was created and includes a data collection system with the use of GPS, the coding of descriptive information on cycle trail segments and the administration of GIS layers in a topologic data model. The methodology of the UDCI application is demonstrated with a specific example of a cycle trail network in the South Bohemian region.
Not only is cycling in the Czech Republic popular as a transport mode, but also as one of the possible ways to spend leisure time. Bicycle use as a transport mode for commuting to work is a preferred mode for 6% of the population (SLDB, 2001). Since the terrain in the Czech Republic is diverse, this value differs in different regions. In some districts, such as Pardubice and Nymburk, which are located in lowlands, around the river Labe, 19% of the population uses a bicycle for commuting (Martinek, 2007, p. 64). The use of bicycles for cycle tourism is not systematically monitored, although cycling is a very popular way to spend holidays and leisure time. According to the study INCOMA GfK (2007), cycling is regularly practised by 10% of the population, while another 10% practise cycling irregularly. Similar to other European countries where cycle tourism is on the rise (e.g. Ritchie, 1998), attention is currently being paid to building a cycle infrastructure in the Czech Republic. To improve the quality of services for cycling tourists, a system of safe cycle trails, which provide access to the regional cultural and natural points of interest, is being defined. Cycle trails are marked trails running along roads, including local, field and forest roads. They have both a transport as well as a recreational purpose. A part of the network follows the idea of the Greenways system (e.g. Gobster, 1995; Ryan, Fábos, & Allan, 2006; Toccolini, Fumagalli, & Senes, 2006; Turner, 2006). The organization which deals with the cycle trail marking is the Czech Tourist Club (KCT, http://www.kct.cz/). They have been building a complex system of walking tourist trails in the Czech Republic since 1889. Cycle trails have been marked in a similar way since the 1990s. The approximate total length of all marked cycle trails in the Czech Republic on 1 December 2010 was 39,000 km. There are two ways of marking cycle trails. Where cycle trails run on roads, road signs and marking are used. Where they run on the terrain, trail marks are applied on natural or artificial surfaces such as trees, rocks, building walls, etc. The established colour design of red, blue, white and green, with a yellow stripe at the bottom and at the top, mark these trails. Supplementary markings, particularly at junctions and crossroads, use small yellow boards with additional information about the destination and its distance in kilometres. These are marked in two ways (Fig. 1).When determining the course of cycle trails, attention is paid to cyclists' safety and the need to ensure traffic flow. Therefore, when designing the course of cycle trails within the Czech road network, the maximum focus is on the inclusion of secondary roads with lower motorised vehicle traffic volumes, which was set to the maximum of 2000 vehicles/day (Bílová, Bíl, Kala, & Martínek, 2008, p. 64). A gradual systematic release of roads from the network of cycle trails and their replacement with safer trails exclusively for cyclists is a desired trend, since cyclist accidents with fast driven motor vehicles are the most frequent cause of fatal accidents in the Czech Republic (Bíl, Bílová, & Müller, 2010). Apart from KCT, the building of cycle trails is also provided by local administrations, which often leads to problems in work coordination and thus in the homogeneity of their provided data. This disorderly development had negative effects for example at administration borders, where in some cases the cycle trails do not follow each other. The situation became unsustainable over time and a new approach of creating a unified system of cycle trail markings at a national level and mapping of the existing cycle trail network was created. The Unified GIS Database of Cycle Infrastructure in the Czech Republic (UDCI). UDCI methodology aims to: 1. Create a unified system of cycle trails in the Czech Republic The extent of the whole network, the course of individual trails, points of parallel courses and systematic numbering of cycle trails will be determined. Administrators will need to optimize the locations of the supplementary cycle infrastructure, plan for repairs, etc. 2. Improve cycle traffic and cycle tourism safety Mapping will make it easier to identify locations where the cycle trails run along unsuitable roads with high volumes of motorised traffic or other obstacles that are hazardous for cyclists. At the same time, the frequent use of unpaved roads in natural areas by cyclists may cause more intensive erosion and also have an impact on local ecosystems (e.g. Lynn & Brown, 2003). The mapping of these locations will help the administrators plan repairs and reduce these effects through actions like reinforcing cycle trail surfaces. 3. Support and promote cycling and cycle tourism A unified and interconnected system of cycle trails will be more attractive for cyclists and cycling tourists, who would not need to spend extra time planning a route between unconnected cycle trails. The information in the database will also contain data on the attractiveness to tourist and interesting sites along a given cycle trail. The data will be provided to cartographic organizations as a basis for map printing and cycling guidebook production. Appropriate cycling databases and technical maintenance of the cycle trail equipment is the responsibility of regional authorities. The further text shows the principle of UDCI and its application with an example of a mapped cycle trail network in the South Bohemian region.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
This paper presents a method of creating a Unified GIS database of cycle infrastructure. The main reason for the preparation of this methodology was an attempt to unify data on cycle trails and the need to establish a unified and data homogenous system at the national level. For this purpose a method of data collection has been developed that uses GPS receivers and a system of attribute coding. This method led to increasing the speed of data collection, the reduction of the data error rate and the reduction of expenses on printing traditional paper maps for mapping purposes. After some training, data collection may be carried out by people with no knowledge of GIS. Once mapped trails are transferred from GPS devices into the GIS, they are, after processing, kept as a topological vector cycle network that can be used for questioning and further development planning. This system is being gradually applied to all regions in the Czech Republic and it contributes to improving the management of the network of cycle trails in various regions in the Czech Republic.