شرکت شبکه مبتنی بر دانش در بازاریابی رویداد و مقصد: چشم انداز تحلیلی سناریوی مهمان نوازی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|18556||2009||10 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||9668 کلمه|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Tourism Management, Volume 30, Issue 2, April 2009, Pages 184–193
This paper examines how enterprises may decide to bring about effective network collaboration even though present mediation forms have proven inadequate. One of the main problems of these enterprises is that they lack a clear picture of the potential future “modular business”. The Dutch hospitality sector faced such dilemma and commissioned a scenario study, a tool that can aid the interactive process of future image formation, in the midst of uncertainty, and support decision-making. The findings indicate that modern ICT may offer support to establishing hospitality networks that shape a physical and virtual environment for the delivery of services to developing client demands. These findings enable entrepreneurs to participate in efforts to enhance their ICT capabilities and moderation of effective knowledge sharing within a destination and event marketing platform. The resulting understanding should lead stakeholders to ‘re-create’ the past view of hospitality towards emerging, strategic options for hospitality enterprises.
This paper focuses on the impact of information and communication technologies (ICTs) on the capability of hospitality enterprises to simultaneously compete and cooperate, within the destination and event network context. The effects of the former appear to be profound in that they seem to spread fast and change not only the methods of production, but what is being produced, and how, as well. The digital society is said to replace the industrial economy (Keen, 1991 and Malone, 2004). The latter deals with the view of ‘hospitality’, ranging from a commercial point of view to an institutional perspective (Cassee and Reuland, 1983 and Nunez, 1979). This paper applies the scenario technique to understand the nature of change brought about by the transformation to the digital society and the alternative possible dimensions of responses the hospitality businesses may provide (Ciborra, 1999 and Star, 2004). The theme of digitalization, destination marketing and hospitality is positioned in the overlap of three knowledge domains: private business, public sector and ICTs. So far, these domains have developed largely independently of each other. The structure of our arguments depends upon their synthesis. This synthesis leads to a preliminary question whether the hospitality sector participates in stimulating and sustaining the knowledge-based destination network in the context of rules and stimuli decreed by governmental agencies at different levels. We are especially interested in investigating the network from a developmental model perspective instead of a technological system's perspective (Larsen, Urry, & Axhausen, 2007). In particular, we seek to identify insights into how network stakeholders, both ‘insiders’ (local) and ‘outsiders’ (global) deal with the key issue of disruptive innovation, its impact on business processes and the subsequent need for participation in the supportive context of ICTs to reduce transaction cost and improve service quality within a network environment. The research in this paper concerns hospitality entrepreneurs in the Netherlands, who feel that their performance potential is constrained by a myriad of rules, imposed by government. Our purpose is to understand how Dutch stakeholders, possibly in combination with foreign partners, may apply an effective strategy of knowledge development, knowledge sharing and application as a means of underpinning their destination and event marketing organization function. To this extent, we investigate the usage of knowledge management in the context of the ‘host–guest encounter’ and, by extension, the network of providers in relation to the destination platform to jointly address the issue of Dutch labor market shortages. Hospitality customers may be reasonably satisfied at present. But demographic developments, particularly the ‘greying’ of Western society cast a long shadow over the sector's future, because, it signals the underlying issue of an impending labor shortage. One of the main challenges the Dutch hospitality sector faces presently is how to mobilize no less than 102,900 new employees annually by 2010.1 For all intent and purposes, it should be noted that the former consists for the most part replacement staff, which figure should be compared to the 81,500 employees, who are currently required on an annual basis. The present labor issue is complex in nature, and there is no quick fix solution due to constraints that are ‘embedded’ in the current labor market: such as a 75% participation rate in 2005, which is considered relatively high, resulting in a ‘tight labor market’ offering entrepreneurs little room for maneuvering. Moreover, the labor market is shrinking, the adoption of innovation for value adding in the hospitality sector tends to lag behind other service sectors while the pressure on return on investment continues to increase. On another level the challenge is aggravated, due, in part, to the present supply – policy orientation practiced by vocational educational institutions. In particular, this approach has dire consequences and within the Dutch hospitality sector raises doubts about the ability of the former to function effectively and efficiently in an increasingly dynamic labor market. Finally, it is feared that a surplus of rules that govern vocational educational institutions are likely to ‘kill’ innovation initiatives within vocational schools. Using the Dutch hospitality sector as our case study, the present investigation explores the challenges and opportunities from a scenario research perspective and seeks to identify relevant future images, i.e., those ‘uncertainties’ that are likely to impact the evolution of the hospitality sector. In particular, the increasing demands of customers, the ICT opportunities and the mentioned lack of competences of employees on the supply-side may be seen as salient feature of the present hospitality market and results in a ‘climate’ of growing uncertainty and potential dys-functioning of ‘service as usual’. The paper is structured as follows. In Section 2, we scrutinize the literature about coordinating productive efforts and developing client demands in order to find new, knowledge-based coordination models. This theoretical section ends with the rationale for taking a cultural perspective towards coordination issues that views hospitality as a means to offer a feeling of security to network members. This view results in the main research question whether the hospitality sector is ready to offer the required organizational and leadership behavior, within the scope of the (digital) network context. In Section 3, we introduce scenario technique as study method. Scenarios can be viewed as possible visions of future uncertainties as opposed to predictions (Van der Heijden, 1996). We justify the application of the scenario technique, as our study is concerned with the impact of new technologies and networks on the modeling of the future development of knowledge-based networks within the hospitality sector. And the latter is unpredictable. Section 4 presents the scenarios and so chronicles the Dutch hospitality industry trends, particularly taking into account the causes that are likely to impact the evolution of hospitality enterprises. Subsequently, Section 5 identifies options that may be used for the strategic decision-making process. Section 6 concludes with our interpretation of the results of the present scenario planning exercise. Particularly, our structural analysis provides a framework for understanding three future scenarios including their potential impact on the ‘shaping’ of knowledge-based networks in the context of the present stage of the hospitality sector life cycle. The latter is under pressure of forces, including long-run changes in growth, changes in the cost of resource, particularly labor and capital costs, government policy changes and changes in the structure of related sectors. As a result hospitality executives should not only possess an understanding of their own industry, but especially the structure of destination and event marketing, whose workings and success in the field of process innovation is inextricable intertwined with those of the hospitality sector.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
This study applied a scenario analysis perspective to underscore the significant potential that knowledge-based network participation in destination and event marketing platform holds for the formulation of hospitality business strategy. It claims that the host–guest relationship and the chain relations between providers continue to play a central role in the competitive positioning of the hospitality industry, but the sector should be aware of the influence of the innovation environment, particularly, the role of ICTs in setting the overall strategic direction, affect the coordination of functional activities and their outcomes, including their contribution towards resolving the labor market shortage. If the sector is unable to capitalize on the opportunities, substitutes and suppliers whose bargaining power exceeds that of the hospitality sector are likely to step into the void. The contribution of the paper is the demonstration of how a different vision on ‘hospitality’ leads to different venues where entrepreneurs, public institutions and ICT-developments meet (Normann, 1984). On the one hand, it elucidates that hospitality sites, being ‘nodes’ in a network, do not have to solve all labor and ICT demands themselves (Malone, 2004 and Miles and Snow, 1994). On the other hand, they can concentrate on their main capacity, namely the offering of a place where the ‘stranger’, in his or her quality as worker, traveler or private person, is welcome. The integration of both sides leads to business models that intertwine ICT and networks from ‘hosting’ as the point of departure, in order to offer clients the opportunity to realize a healthy mixture of working and ‘living’ activities (Larsen et al., 2007). It is these business models, which represent the ‘support economy’ meaning of hospitality, that we see arise in the scenarios (Zuboff & Maxmin, 2003). In summary, scenario 1 shows a future where a shake-out of traditional hospitality companies has taken place and only hospitality companies that support physical and virtual communities by cooperation with volatile customers while using virtual and physical elements, have filled the gap. In scenario 2, one of the main issues is the matter of sourcing of network knowledge beyond the entrepreneurs' own trade. Actors from other sectors (food producers, suppliers) take over coordinative efforts and gain a central position in the service network. Hospitality companies may have a comeback by first aligning with these companies, then by learning from them and finally by becoming a serious network partner. In scenario 3, customers might abandon the independent pursuit of business in favor of destination network-driven approach wherein proliferating destination/event and web-based social organizations serve both the individual and collective interests. In fact, the social network of guests and civil society members takes over. Following scenario 3, hospitality companies could perform an important supportive role by aligning its internal atmospheric context to the one established by the destination and event marketing network. In all three scenarios discussed, the necessity of network creation and implementation emerged as a converging theme to solve demand and supply of (labor) services and infrastructure. New media offer significant potential for platform development to enhance connectivity and market-based coordination between all stakeholders. But still the face-to-face encounters of network members are not to be ignored in order to share complex information with one another. Combining these virtual and physical worlds results in so-called knowledge clans. In all scenarios more emphasis could then be put on material facilities, including ICT, for instance for the improvement of formal logistic procedures that are a prerequisite for intelligent business development. It is concluded that aforementioned innovative learning trajectories ask for transformational strategies, not only of individual hospitality entrepreneurs, but also of the destination network as a whole. Further study will be aimed at finding settings neighboring out of the ‘standard’ hospitality sector where the offering of services is related with hosting the guest as a welcome client. We think of the insourcing of hospitality services and education in the area of private banking, the provision of journeys within multinationals and so on. These services, in business as well as in private situations, can be leveraged by seeing hospitality as an institution of security. The application of transformations towards these networks is feasible because throughout its history the hospitality industry has often changed its organizational patterns (Ganter, 2004). Such transformation requires, however, a combination of high-impact explorative changes with a high impact followed by exploitation, meaning fine-tuning efforts (O'Reilly & Tushman, 1996). For the customer, however, the power structure within networks is unimportant. Instead, what counts are the decisions and plans that stakeholders make about network applications to cope with contemporary dilemmas. Particularly, in the overlap of different knowledge networks, destination and event marketing, the hospitality sector and the planning intervention to revitalize local communities, lies opportunity to develop support and implement new solutions that respond in quicker, more flexible, less costly ways to the desires and lifestyles of many different and changing individuals.