شایستگی های برجسته دانش و شیوه های وب 2.0 برای توسعه مدیریت پروژه آموزش الکترونیکی موفق
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|18708||2013||8 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||5660 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : International Journal of Project Management, Volume 31, Issue 1, January 2013, Pages 14–21
The article deals with the knowledge competences that a project manager has to develop to succeed when using the new web 2.0 environments. In order to achieve this, a literature review of the main leading e-learning models is carried out, along with a study of the key factors that affect project performance positively. The new Web 2.0 environments invite us to an alternative reality where the use of its tools can offer new possibilities in the development of e-learning projects, identifying under what conditions value is added: efficiency, innovation, complementarity and loyalty. As a guide of new researches, we conclude that the project manager must modify the existing key competencies (Pedagogical, Management, Technical and Social ones) and to develop new ones based on knowledge management to be successful in managing this web 2.0 e-learning project.
In the current environment which is constantly changing, the competences of the project managers continuously evolve (Eskerod, 2010) and the platforms for the development of e-learning tools (Ashleigh and Ojiako, 2012) have become training areas needed to acquire relevant knowledge in organizations. There is extensive literature which deals with the competences that a project manager must develop within a company in order to carry out the role that is required, but the incorporation of Technologies and Communications (hereinafter ICT) and particularly Web technologies 2.0 (O'reilly, 2005), changes the principles and traditional practices with which companies have been working. The employee requires much more flexible and open training throughout his/her whole professional life: “Lifelong Learning”. The pillars that feed this training process are being updated and a dynamic figure or e-learning project manager is required with a set of competences that fit the training process. From these previous determining factors, the goal of our study is to develop a framework which covers all the components that should be involved in an e-learning project and establishes the relationships between them to make the project successful. The combination of the classic capabilities of the e-learning project managers with the most modern conceptual skills, which are successful in other environments, is an innovation within project management literature. The article will be structured as follows. Section 2 summarizes the main texts that deal with the agents involved in an e-learning project. Later in Section 3, the main models of e-learning project management are analyzed, studying the relationships between the different people involved in the learning process. In Section 4 the principles and practices of web 2.0 are developed, investigating from this point of view under which conditions value is created in an e-learning platform. In Section 5 conclusions of the study and practical implications for a project manager will be developed, pointing out the new lines of research that can be opened in this new scenario.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
This article aims at putting forward those knowledge competences that a project manager should develop to be successful in web 2.0 environments. To that end, three levels of potential development have been identified In the first level, competences required by a project manager can be grouped mainly in pedagogical—acting as an expert and transmitter of contents—and those related to management, coordination and structuring of contents and assessment of the project. With the emergence of IT, a second level is created, in which the project manager must adapt to a technological environment where communication takes place through virtual platform eliminating the triple dimension: space, time and activity existing in traditional models of classroom learning. This modifies pedagogical competences: information is available to all, an expert is not required, but instead a guide is required to help establishing the connections between different information nodes. Learning turns into lifelong learning, which in turn requires that management of learning focuses not only in the existence of contents, but also in the ability of teaching how to learn to learn. Finally, other competences emerge that shall play a crucial role in the development of e-learning projects: technological and social competences. Entrepreneurial and positive innovation attitudes of project managers with the introduction of these new technologies in the learning project will pave the way for the extension and adaptability of such technologies. In this context, simple and user-friendly interfaces of technological platforms toward users will be key, creating an environment in which the knowledge and abilities required for successful learning can be developed. Recently, the web 2.0 has changed the one-directional approach of the knowledge transmission process for a bidirectional approach, in which the user emerges as a creator of contents among many in a multi-channel environment. This environment opens new forms of acquiring resources, introducing new functionalities related to the dissemination of knowledge. The costs and development of this technology have ceased to act as access barrier to these projects, as shown by the creation of several open-code technological platforms, modular and fully accessible. All web 2.0 functionalities described above show a high level of coherence with the technology acceptance model (Venkatesh et al., 2003), which establishes perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness as main requirements for the intention of use or for an accepting attitude toward a sustained use of technological innovations. Concomitancy of these technologies provides an added source of motivation that point to a foreseeable evolution of current models toward these virtual environments. Innovation, ensuring customers' loyalty, efficiency and complementarity within a web 2.0 context are the key features that allow the project manager to evolve to a third level, in which, again, the development of new competences and the adaption of the existing ones will be key for the success of future e-learning projects. Pedagogical and management competences shall focus mainly in disseminating existing contents through multi-channel processes and obtaining external resources. The guiding role will be in the generation of new contents, now emerging through the interaction among the users of the system. In this new context, the project manager not only needs to create a user-friendly environment within the system, but should also develop his or her social competences to promote users' participation through new means of motivation. This participation will allow a more efficient and dynamic content management based on users' requirements and the assignation of practical resources, all of which will positively impact the outcomes of the learning process. In addition to this dynamic management, the project manager should include relevant knowledge developed by informal users in the social networks with the aim of facilitating the flows of ideas with the users of the system. In this third level, technological competences play a less important role since platforms are increasingly easy to use and intuitive, in addition to the existence of open-code, modular applications offering very positive results. The development of the web 2.0 requires the involvement of users throughout their professional careers. Motivation, promotion of participation, team work, leadership, changes in the way we communicate, adaption to cultural diversity and changing environments… mean that the project manager needs to redefine traditional concepts of team management to adapt them to this alternative reality, where the development potential can be foreseen as unlimited. Management of these knew knowledge competences will create a future where problem solving will crucially depend on the ability to adequately raise the problem, following the path of more pragmatic, already existent initiatives, such as crowdsourcing. In this framework, the team figure prevails over more individualistic behavior. Thus, the project manager that manages to adapt and to integrate the knowledge competences will be successful in e-learning projects, evolving toward what we denominate e-team learning project management. As future lines of research we are assessing the possibility of developing an empirical analysis establishing causal relations among the background variables of an e-learning project management, incorporating the knowledge competences and the degree of introduction of the web 2.0, in the learning process and relating them to a latent variable of final performance, such as the knowledge acquired by users of the platform.