سیاست مدیریت در حال توسعه محیط زیست تاریخی دریایی: تجربه میراث انگلیسی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|19485||2014||7 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||محاسبه نشده|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Marine Policy, , Volume 45, March 2014, Pages 342-348
This paper provides an opportunity to examine the involvement of English Heritage in the development of policy and practice with particular regard to how archaeology and features of historic interest are addressed under national legislation, international conventions and EU law. In this paper we provide an explanation of action taken to support conservation, understanding and enjoyment of the historic environment, such as those sites that are legally protected as historic shipwreck sites, and other features that comprise the historic environment, but which are recognised and protected through other legal mechanisms e.g., military vessels and aeroplanes. It is apparent to us that when considering the management agenda for the marine environment attention is also given to archaeological material that predates tidal inundation, as well as the subsequent legacy of maritime activities. To support this approach we examine how the historic environment is defined and included in objectives, policy and law, such as the Marine and Coastal Access Act 2009, as well as other European or international programmes to promote marine policy and spatial planning. In the years since the National Heritage Act 2002, and the empowerment of English Heritage to support marine projects, we assess the production of explanatory statements and guidance to inform protection in recognition of how change may affect historic environment features. In addition, it is apparent that extensive development is now taking place further offshore (e.g., renewable power projects) and we direct attention at how English Heritage's role is affected by legally defined maritime territorial limits that dictate interpretation of what the marine environment comprises and how such limits influence regulatory controls placed on the management of cultural heritage.
The management of the historic environment depends on sound principles, clear policies based on those principles, and the quality of the decisions that flow from the policies. It is therefore important to explain the role played by English Heritage as the Government's advisor on all aspects of the historic environment in England. The organisation's general powers under section 33 of the National Heritage Act 1983 were amended by the National Heritage Act 2002 to include the preservation of monuments in, on, or under the seabed, within the English area of the UK Territorial Sea (to 12 nautical miles offshore). English Heritage operates as an Executive Non-Departmental Public Body sponsored by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport reporting to Parliament through the Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS). With the introduction of the National Heritage Act In 2002, English Heritage published Taking to the water: An Interim Policy for the Management of Maritime Archaeology in England , which set out how the organisation intended to deliver its new responsibilities through a professional framework designed to encompass avocational involvement in the management of England's underwater cultural heritage. In subsequent years English Heritage has published a sequence of thematic position statements directed at key sectors, such as Wind Energy and the Historic Environment ; Ports: the impact of development on the Maritime Historic Environment ; Regeneration in Historic Coastal Towns ; and The European Landscape Convention: English Heritage Action Plan for Implementation . This paper will describe the role of English Heritage and the work carried out to develop marine historic environment management policy with particular reference to the obligations under English and UK legislation and the formulation and development of our policies since 2002. Attention will also be given to how international conventions and EU law affect English Heritage's work, the various interpretations of what the marine environment comprises and the implications of the Marine and Coastal Access Act 2009 for management of marine cultural heritage.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Following the Government's Comprehensive Spending Review, we are under considerable pressure to optimise the effectiveness of our advice and we must be highly focused on critical delivery functions. We have therefore published a new Corporate Plan for the period 2011–2015  together with an accompanying National Heritage Protection Plan . The latter sets out core objectives that the organisation will promote partnerships; direct resources towards the most threatened and least understood parts of the historic environment; promote efficient and effective protection; and, align its self with academic research funding priorities. We will also publish a research framework for the maritime, marine and coastal archaeology of England. It is intended that this framework, developed through consultation across the sector, will provide a coherent overview of previous research into the maritime and marine historic environment, enable long-term strategic planning and inform policy. A decade has passed since English Heritage adopted maritime responsibilities, and it is clear that the formulation of advice and the commissioning of projects are informed by an approach that sees the historic environment as a component of the marine environment. It is equally important to see how different approaches to the conservation of marine historic sites develops within the UK and how further development of marine environmental policies will consider all aspects of a shared environment. In this regard English Heritage will continue to advocate its Conservation Principles in support of effective partnership working across marine disciplines, participate within the new marine planning system and offer advice in development assessment exercises. However, limited resources and unresolved issues between international legal frameworks, EU requirements for environmental assessment, national responsibilities and marine spatial planning both inshore and offshore all require attention. It is accepted that thematic marine programmes are inevitable, where obligations are specified, such as improving the conservation status of marine habitats and species, but delivery of such objectives should not inadvertently exclude other publically-supported activities conducted within the same environment. Close attention is also required in how terminology is employed that attempts to differentiate between social interests, cultural characteristics and cultural services. In particular, it is how these terms are interpreted that will govern how the historic environment is considered within a proportionate and risk-based approach to sustainable marine development. English Heritage must therefore continue a process of dialogue to inform policy development whereby obligations are satisfied, but opportunities for mutual agreed benefits are maximised.