آیا رهبران تحول گرا عادل و منصف هستند؟ مطالعه چند سطحی از رهبری تحول گرا، ادراک عدالت و رفتار شهروندی سازمانی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|19495||2010||13 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||9210 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : The Leadership Quarterly, Volume 21, Issue 3, June 2010, Pages 409–421
This study examined the psychological processes that might underlie the relationship between transformational leadership (i.e., individualized consideration and charisma) and individual- and group-level multifocal organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs). In doing so, we focused on the potential mediating role of individual- and group-level justice perceptions of a follower(s) in transformational leadership processes. Specifically, we hypothesized that at the individual level, a leader's individualized consideration relates to leader-directed OCBs through interpersonal justice, whereas at the group level, a leader's charisma relates to group-directed OCBs through procedural justice climate. The individual- and group-level models as well as the various alternative models were tested using a sample of 159 employees (including 40 supervisors and their immediate subordinates) embedded in 40 groups from 25 branches of a large, multinational bank in Korea. The results supported our hypothesized relationships, suggesting that individual- and group-level justice perceptions play important roles in the linkage between transformational leadership behaviors and OCBs at both the individual and the group levels.
Since Bass's (1985) pioneering works on transformational leadership, numerous studies have made a great effort to examine the behavioral characteristics of transformational leaders and their positive relationships on work outcomes in organizations [see Yammarino, Dionne, Chun, & Dansereau's (2005) review on transformational leadership]. Previous studies have consistently shown a positive relationship between transformational leadership and effectiveness. However, despite the findings about what transformational leaders perform, at least one fundamental issue deserves further examination—specifically, how do transformational leaders influence an individual follower as well as a group as a whole, and why do followers react to their leaders' leadership behaviors? As pointed out by several researchers ( Bass, 1999, Piccolo & Colquitt, 2006 and Yukl, 2006), these questions have not been fully addressed. In an effort to respond to the research questions above, this study considers a portion of the issues with a multi-level focus on the psychological processes that underlie transformational leadership. Specifically, the primary purpose of this study is two fold. First, this study focuses on a theoretical integration of the transformational leadership and organizational justice literatures in a way that employees' justice perceptions may serve as important underlying psychological mechanisms in transformational leadership processes. As Knippenberg, Knippenberg, De Cremer, and Hogg (2004) indicated, although leaders are viewed as influential entities affecting followers' justice perceptions, little is known about the role of followers' justice perceptions in the leadership field. By examining this gap, the present study extends our knowledge on the extant literature of organizational behavior by integrating two important domains–transformational leadership and organizational justice–into one angle. To date, this perspective has gone largely unexplored. Second, in doing such integration, the present study investigates the theoretical assumption that the level-of-analysis and multi-level approach plays a crucial role in clarifying the hypothesized relationships. Transformational leadership phenomena need to be examined with a multi-level perspective in order to give us a better understanding of their impacts in contemporary organizations. For example, in current business practices, more and more individuals work in team- or group-based structures ( Konovsky, 2000). As group-based structures gain momentum, the need to identify the effect of transformational leadership at the group level of analysis also increases. This is because transformational leaders not only inspire each follower to perform better but also motivate their followers as a collective to achieve positive group outcomes, such as group performance ( Jung & Sosik, 2002). However, research on transformational leadership related to levels-of-analysis issues and multi-level approaches is still scarce, regardless of the fact that levels issues have been crucial in building theory, measurement, and statistical analyses ( Yammarino et al., 2005). In examining psychological processes in transformational leadership, we focus on two components of leadership whose conceptual natures fit our multi-level perspective: individualized consideration and charisma. Individualized consideration is based on the theoretical notion that leaders focus on concerns for each individual follower ( Bass & Riggio, 2006), whereas charismatic leaders tend to focus more on collective goals and performance through collective efforts ( Bass & Riggio, 2006 and Shamir et al., 1993). Therefore, such emphasis for the two components in this study rests on their theoretical notions in relation to our level assumption. In addition, the existence of clear theoretical foundations for levels issues merits special attention: Individualized consideration and charisma have been theorized and empirically tested in prior research in conjunction with clearer assumptions on levels issues than the other component (i.e., intellectual stimulation) in transformational leadership (see Avolio & Bass, 1998, Bass et al., 2003 and Yammarino et al., 1998). Furthermore, in previous research these two behavioral components of transformational leadership have revealed high predictability for leadership effectiveness. According to Lowe, Kroeck, and Sivasubramaniam's (1996) meta-analysis, charisma and individualized consideration were the two strongest components in predicting leadership effectiveness. Accordingly, the present study seeks to explore the individual- and group-level psychological processes that underlie the relationship between transformational leadership and multi-foci organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) via justice perceptions with a multi-level approach. Specifically, we investigate whether a transformational leader's individualized consideration may relate to a follower's leader-directed OCBs via interpersonal justice, while a transformational leader's charisma may relate to followers' group-directed OCBs via procedural justice climate. The theory underlying this approach is presented in Fig. 1.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Overall, this study adds to the knowledge of transformational leadership and multifocal effectiveness in conjunction with major justice perceptions of a follower(s) in workplaces, based on a multi-level approach. Our findings suggest that transformational leadership behaviors (i.e., individualized consideration and charisma) operate at multiple levels, and that these behaviors relate to multifocal OCBs via a follower's individual- or group-level justice perception at a certain level. Specifically, when a follower perceives a transformational leader's individualized considerate behaviors as respectful and polite, this serves as a basis for engaging in a follower's leader-directed OCBs. In addition, when a transformational leader's charismatic behaviors are perceived as applying procedures equally and consistently to the group as a whole, this relates to followers' group-directed OCBs. Understanding the psychological processes that underlie transformational leadership may be complicated, which may necessitate considerable efforts to clarify these processes. Our intention was to provide some initial work that would stimulate continuing endeavors on the relationship between transformational leadership, individual- and group-level justice perceptions held by followers, and leadership effectiveness in organizations. We believe this line of work helps us address the fundamental research agenda in transformational leadership: How transformational leaders influence individual followers as well as a group as a whole, and why followers react to the leadership behaviors. We encourage researchers to seek out further insights into these important relationships in various structural and cultural contexts as future research progresses.