حمل و نقل هوایی و طرح انتشار تجاری اتحادیه اروپا __ درس های آموخته شده از طرح های انتشار تجاری قبلی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|19798||2012||4 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||3503 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Energy Policy, Volume 49, October 2012, Pages 770–773
Designing an emissions trading scheme requires in-depth knowledge regarding several aspects. This paper attempts to clarify some important design points of the forthcoming emissions trading scheme for aviation under the EU ETS. Five general key points of system design are acknowledged and comparisons are made to previous and current emission trading schemes. While it is not meant to be exhaustive it helps to create an understanding of what design elements should be handled with caution. Discussion is provided in regard to the recent implementation of aviation in the EU ETS. Above all, it is argued that initial allocations of emission permits and the trade barrier between the aviation sector and EU ETS need to be carefully examined.
In accordance with the goals set up by the Kyoto Protocol, carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the members of the European Union decreased by roughly 5% between 1990 and 2003. During the same time period the total contribution of CO2 emissions from international aviation increased by an astonishing 73% (Wit et al., 2005). According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Control (IPCC, 2007) aviation is responsible for approximately 2% of global CO2 emissions. As passenger quantities grow at a rate of roughly 5% per year (Lee et al., 2009), depending on improvements in fuel efficiency and flight frequencies, this might potentially lead to an increase in emissions of greenhouse gases in the range 3–4% annually given that no effort is put into limiting and reducing the global environmental impact from the sector (IPCC, 2007). Thus, it was deemed crucial to implement some control on emissions stemming from aviation. Starting on January 1, 2012 all emissions from civil international aviation, arriving and departing within the European Union, are monitored and controlled through issuance of emission permits. Some key design points can be distinguished regarding implementation of an emissions trading scheme, these also apply to the case where a new sector is included in an already existing one. In order to bring some clarification to the issues at hand one can study already existing emission trading schemes to see how these issues have been handled in the past.