نام تجاری (برند) در دست : تحقیقات بین بازاری پذیرش مصرف کننده از بازاریابی تلفن همراه
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|1990||2012||9 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||محاسبه نشده|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Business Horizons, Volume 55, Issue 5, September–October 2012, Pages 485–493
Given the great potential of developing marketing campaigns delivered via mobile devices and the evolution of near-field communication technologies, this study examines factors influencing consumers’ acceptance of untethered, or mobile, marketing across three influential markets: the United States, China, and Europe. We examine the extent to which the usefulness of mobile information/programs and individual characteristics—namely innovativeness, personal attachment, and risk avoidance—jointly influence attitudes toward mobile marketing, and how the latter influences consumers’ mobile marketing activity across three large and influential markets. We found perceived usefulness, consumer innovativeness, and personal attachment to directly influence attitudes toward mobile marketing in all three markets. In China and Europe, risk avoidance also negatively influences attitudes toward mobile marketing. Marketers seeking to build and maintain customer relationships via mobile platforms should view these individual characteristics as levers brands can push to amplify consumers’ acceptance of mobile marketing.
Coinciding with the widespread adoption of 3G and 4G smartphones among consumers, mobile marketing has increasingly become a staple tactic in brands’ advertising and promotional efforts. Target, Ralph Lauren, Dunkin Donuts, Starbucks, Volkswagen, Chanel, FIFA, and Puma represent just a few consumer brands from the United States, Europe, and Asia that have begun to aggressively adopt untethered mobile marketing platforms to forge closer and more relevant connections with specific audiences. In the U.S. alone, companies’ spending on mobile advertising and promotions and their ability to deliver brands to consumers is forecast to grow approximately 600% from $9.3 billion in 2010 to $56.5 billion by 2015 (Marketing Charts, 2011). Several years ago, prior to the launch of the iPhone, marketers and researchers (e.g., Sultan & Rohm, 2005) began touting the opportunities inherent in ‘brand in the hand’ marketing via mobile devices, particularly among youth markets. The continued adoption of 3G and 4G Internet-enabled phones among consumers in markets ranging from the United States and Europe to emerging markets like India and China has led brands to increasingly view such technology as an effective marketing platform. Also, while smartphones have yet to see mass consumer adoption, this trend is quickly changing among younger consumers. Consider China, where in 2001 there were 10 million mobile phone subscribers; today, the country hosts almost 200 million smartphone users (Ablott, 2011). Moreover, recent studies have shown that Chinese and U.S. youth consumers are the most active mobile users in terms of mobile Internet access, email, and texting compared to the rest of the world (Nielsen Research, 2010). Experts suggest that almost 90% of the globe will soon be connected via some type of mobile device, and by 2015, there will be more Internet-enabled phones in use than computers. Additionally, near-field-communication (NFC) technologies are rapidly changing the way we view our ‘phones’ as they evolve from communication devices to electronic wallets. For instance, Starbucks recently launched one of the first pay-by-phone applications to be adopted on a broad level in the United States. Mobile technology represents one of the fastest-growing marketing communication platforms, and a variety of mobile devices are in widespread use around the world. In fact, by the end of 2011, smartphone penetration is predicted to reach 50% in markets in the United States and parts of Western Europe (Nielsen Research, 2010). Due to this convergence of wireless and mobile device technology, consumers are now freed—or untethered—from their homes, desktops, and offices, with the ability to communicate, access and share information within their social networks, play games, and buy products via location-based applications. 1.1. One size fits all? In seeking to realize the marketing potential of a mobile medium, companies frequently make the too-common mistake of viewing mobile marketing as a one-size-fits-all platform to be applied in the same manner across global markets, irrespective of other media channels. The problem, we have found, is that companies often fail to consider culture-specific factors (e.g., consumer's overall attitudes of the platform) and individual characteristics (e.g., risk perceptions). For instance, while sports brand Adidas attracted more than 1 million international visitors to its mobile portal during the 2006 FIFA World Cup championships, simply mashing cultures together did not always work. The company's mobile campaign was an enormous success in some markets, such as the United States and China, yet curiously did not perform well in Germany and Italy—even though Germany was the host country for the games! According to Adidas management, the reasons for these cross-country differences included consumers’ overall attitudes toward mobile devices being used as marketing platforms, rather than simply for communication purposes. As this example demonstrates, a mobile campaign that succeeds in the U.S. may not necessarily do so in Europe, China, or other markets. Another mistake companies make regarding mobile marketing is misperceiving the medium as a stand-alone platform that functions independently from the rest of the marketing ecosystem, including traditional media. Herein, we argue that both small and large companies incorporating mobile marketing into their overall marketing strategy must recognize that consumers’ acceptance of mobile marketing can differ, depending on where they live and work. We further contend that mobile marketing should be considered as one, albeit important, element of a brand's overall customer communication ecosystem. We are now at a crossroads where marketing strategy meets next-generation interactivity and mobility. To thrive or even survive in this new age of marketing, companies will have to figure out how to engage customers across global markets and across the traditional and digital platforms where they ‘live.’ 1.2. A cross-market study of mobile marketing activity To further examine these issues, we conducted a comparative study of global youth consumer acceptance of mobile marketing practices across three markets: the United States, China, and Western Europe. We conceptualized mobile marketing as organizations’, companies’, and brands’ efforts to promote, inform, sell, or otherwise drive consumers to take some type of action using a mobile platform (Mobile Marketing Association, 2008). We focus on youth consumers between the ages of 20 and 24—often referred to as Generation M (for Mobile)—because they represent a generation that has grown up and become socialized to digital content with 24/7 access, when and where they want it ( Grant and O’Donohoe, 2007, Sangwan and Pau, 2005 and Sultan et al., 2009). Further, in terms of disposable income and spending, these younger individuals represent the core consumers of tomorrow. Among the aforementioned demographic group, the key objectives of our research were to investigate the drivers of consumers’ attitudes toward mobile marketing and the relationship between young consumers’ attitudes toward mobile marketing and their actual mobile marketing activity. In particular, we examined six key factors related to youth consumers’ adoption and acceptance of mobile marketing across these markets: 1. Usefulness of information, content, and activities; 2. Consumers’ personal attachment to their mobile phones; 3. Consumers’ innovativeness; 4. Privacy concerns related to the mobile platform; 5. Attitudes toward mobile marketing; and 6. Mobile marketing activity. For companies seeking to optimize their mobile campaigns across markets, recognizing and considering these drivers, including the extent to which the usefulness of mobile content as well as mobile users’ individual characteristics influence both attitudes and mobile activity, is an important first step toward campaign effectiveness.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Forecasts indicate that by 2014, there will be a 90% mobile penetration rate and 6.5 billion mobile connections worldwide. Anticipating this, our findings highlight the importance of managers across markets recognizing the extent to which the usefulness of a mobile campaign—along with how it leverages the individual characteristics of innovativeness, personal attachment, and risk avoidance—works to influence mobile marketing attitudes and activity. Given the rapid pace of development in the industry today, one can only imagine how future mobile device breakthroughs in markets like the United States, Europe, China, and others will foster even greater consumer acceptance of mobile marketing activity. 6.1. Think about customers first Although our findings suggest more similarities than differences with respect to Generation M, managers should first think in terms of an overall consumer-focused strategy and seek to tap into the individual characteristics of innovativeness, personal attachment, and risk avoidance. Marketers need to think about where their customers live, and what cultural and social forces may influence their behavior in the mobile space. Beginning with what we call the usefulness factor, it is critically important for marketers to recognize what is relevant, meaningful, or both to their customers, and to think of usefulness as the first lever to influence more positive attitudes toward mobile marketing and increased mobile activity. 6.2. Innovate! One current example foretelling the future potential of location-based mobile platforms involves SCVNGR. As its website (www.scvngr.com) claims, the company has developed a mobile platform allowing users to, for example, visit a local restaurant, undertake various challenges related to the restaurant, and earn points and rewards, all on the spot. For instance, an individual could check in with SCVNGR at his/her favorite burrito joint and decide to undertake one of several offered challenges while there. It might be to post something about his/her favorite food item, snap a picture, or create a tin foil origami and upload a picture of it on SCVNGR. By completing challenges like these, consumers can earn points to redeem for free items. Given our findings suggesting the role of perceived innovativeness as a personal characteristic leading to greater mobile activity, companies that develop creative and unique mobile campaigns will stand a greater chance of engaging their customers—both today and tomorrow. 6.3. Leverage personal attachment Managers should also keep in mind that mobile engagement with consumers enables them to tap into two unique benefits: (1) mobile technology is becoming increasingly location based and, thus, frees marketers from reaching consumers only within the physical confines of the home or office and (2) mobile devices are a highly personal, engaging, and interactive medium (Pura, 2005 and Shankar et al., 2010). While traditional media, such as out-of-home advertising, can be based on location, it is neither as engaging nor as interactive as mobile advertising. Further, while the fixed Internet can represent an engaging and interactive medium, this engagement and interaction is not linked to the consumer's location. Here lies the significant potential of mobile marketing, particularly given our findings in all three markets that personal attachment to one's mobile device can significantly influence consumers’ attitudes toward and participation in mobile marketing activity. 6.4. Earn their trust As mobile marketing budgets continue to rise, it becomes ever more important for marketers to understand how youth consumers perceive mobile interactions with companies, particularly as regards reaching consumers across different markets and cultures. Based on our research involving both firms’ mobile marketing strategies and consumers’ media consumption activities across global markets, we propose that it is becoming increasingly important for companies seeking greater long-term engagement with younger consumers to design their mobile marketing strategies by first defining an overall trust-based strategy that will help facilitate or stimulate ongoing consumer activity resulting from their mobile experiences. For instance, in some markets (e.g., Western Europe), risk avoidance remains a central limiting factor to consumer acceptance of mobile marketing; thus, firms seeking to foster greater consumer engagement will need to particularly consider trust development in the mobile space.