یک سیستم پشتیبانی تصمیم برای ارزیابی عملیات سرمایه گذاری در کسب و کار با فن آوری پیشرفته
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|19996||2006||16 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||محاسبه نشده|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Decision Support Systems, Volume 41, Issue 2, January 2006, Pages 472–487
The evolution in the way that businesses approach markets has been a frequent literature topic in the last few years. In the high-tech industry, even the most successful companies have been mainly focused on the features of their products and processes, trying to develop their technology to gain a price/performance advantage, and thereby protect or increase market share. However, this approach is disconnected from their beliefs about what target customers really care about, nor does it is consider which of those underlying assumptions are most critical to business growth in share, revenue, and profit. This paper proposes a Decision Support System (DSS) to connect customer value to business targets, providing scenarios to show the customer responses and business results that will enable future funding, with optimization techniques to compare alternatives.The first step is for business planners to characterize their target market by formalizing what are often informal but deeply held beliefs about what drives their customers' purchase decisions. They create a list of attributes that together define customer value, the basis on which customers in the target market compare and select from competing products. With that attribute list, planners sometimes are able to go further and segment their market by grouping customers together who put top priority on the same attributes. This system dynamics model connects planned investments to expected improvements in the customer's perception of those critical attributes, (relative to the competition), and thus increase sales, revenue, and market share.
Decision Support Systems (DSSs) are tools that an organization uses to support and enhance decision-making activities . Early use of decision support analysis was marketing Decision Support Systems (MDSS), defined  as a coordinated collection of data, system, tools and technology, with supporting software and hardware by which an organization gathers and interprets information from business and environment and turns it into a basis for marketing action. Within the field of marketing, Higby and Farah  found that in the US, 32% of the companies have installed some form of marketing DSS (based on a survey among 212 executives.); In the Netherlands, Van Campen et al.  estimated the penetration of Decision Support Systems in marketing at 37% (based on a survey of 525 companies with over 10 employees and marketing manager present). The fact that current formal marketing plans incorporate information resources in 95.2% of the firms, compared to incorporation in 76.2% of the firms' strategic business plans , illustrates about the importance of MDSS at present. Companies and business planners have recognized the strategic importance of MDSS and are stepping up their investments in information technology for marketing  Adoption of MDSS is higher in companies with consumer products compared to industrial (business-to-business) products companies, and in companies with more market information available . Their objective is to support a decision making process which is primarily a matter of reasoning (using the mental models of the manager) and analogizing (based on stories about similar events retained in mind). For instance, Van Bruggen et al.  found that managers who use a DSS are less inclined to anchor their decisions on earlier decisions compared with managers who do not use the system. Similarly, these authors found that the incorporation of model-based results into a DSS is especially beneficial. Prominence effects, overconfidence and other biases are reduced for managers who use model-based DSSs relative to managers who do not. In the literature, we find that although the applicability of some marketing models to real-world problems has been questioned , there have been many examples of successful marketing model applications (see, for instance, Refs.  and ). Beyond marketing, others of these model applications are within the new products area , trying to understand the dynamics between changing demand and the entry and exit behaviors of competitors in the market place. These works model demand and number of competitors simultaneously and empirically investigates some high-tech markets. Still other models try to bridge between new product introduction and marketing to understand the relationship between the number of competitors and the rate of technology diffusion , or to tie conceptual design in a new product introduction with cost modeling and marketing considerations . In this paper, however, we go further to model product design and marketing innovations to anticipate and explain the way collaborative teams, both within firms and between partner businesses, may gain and retain customers in a very competitive high-tech marketplace. The model also considers the expected response of a changing set of competitors. In this work, we pay special attention to the characterization of the customer behavior, and we use system dynamics to build our simulation model2. The simulation model confirms through team review that we have captured the behaviors that explain their customer segment response to changes in product attributes and price, creating collective understanding of the existing business environment, and able to be validated by historical data when available. This can be transformed into a DSS model by examining the impact on share, revenue, and profit from engineering and manufacturing changes made to product attributes and prices, as well as changes made to influence the customer's perceptions, given what we believe to be true about the business dynamics. We show an example of the model used as a framework for a scenario (simulation) where business planners may explore specific product improvement strategies. The simulations calculate expected results in the context of current competitor investment and response, and planners can choose strategies to best meet business (financial and operational) targets and forecasts. The rest of the paper is organized as follows: In Section 2, we characterize high-tech business planning today, with multiple dimensions of business organization, solution architecture, channel strategy, and changing segment needs, and with each dimension changing over time. In Section 3, we introduce a model using the System Dynamics methodology, proven effective for quickly simulating and understanding dynamic, non-linear behavior as a basis for collaborative decisions. 4, 5 and 6 are devoted to the explanation of the consumer purchasing behavior, financial and investments sub-models respectively. Example simulation results are presented in Section 7, generated from both quantitative and qualitative data inputs, a critical requirement in today's fast-changing global marketplace, and we also suggest a generic scenario as a starting point. This section also explains how this model can rapidly be transformed into a Decision Support System for collaborative planning, along with some optimization capabilities to answer several possible questions with the purpose of improving business planning under different scenarios. In Section 8, we discuss our results to date and managerial implications of the high-tech Business Decision Support System. Finally, Section 9 concludes the paper with a summary of our findings and some useful directions for future research.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
In this paper, we have described how we have used simulation models to support product and marketing investment decisions. We have presented a high level model structure, and described formalization of three sub-models for purchasing behavior, financial results, and investments for growth. We have shown how the model is used in business planning to explore a specific problem, and given one example of the model's value as an “engine” of a Decision Support System. The Decision Support System that we have defined takes into account the horizontal and vertical metrics that together define success for current high-tech businesses, matching each investment strategy to specific attributes of customer value and business results. At the same time, we incorporate within the model structure other important characteristics of high-tech markets that are just emerging but will soon be factors in business investments decisions. System dynamics simulations greatly improve analysis of go-to-market strategies, integrating customer knowledge with simulations to analyze spending trade-offs in features, services, support, integration, channel incentives, pricing, and advertising. The payback over time is the shown in the output from this formal system dynamics model, a powerful DSS tool offering the opportunity to compare strategies for a segmented market, under different scenarios, with customized metrics.