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|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|20008||2000||16 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||6474 کلمه|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Vocational Behavior, Volume 57, Issue 3, December 2000, Pages 379–394
This paper examines the linkages among the constructs of career exploration, job search intensity, and job search effectiveness. Viewing job search intensity as a part of the job choice process, job search intensity is hypothesized to mediate the relationships of self and environmental exploration with a job seeker's initial compensation and job satisfaction. Using a sample of 219 graduating college students, results suggested that job search intensity mediated the relationship of environmental exploration with initial compensation. The results supported the concept of readiness and action-based stages in the job choice process. Support may be needed to guide job seekers through both stages.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
The results of this study failed to support hypothesis 1. Self-exploration, as measured in this study, was not associated with job search intensity. Thus, self-exploration appears to have little direct impact on job search behaviors of college graduates. The results supported hypothesis 2. Environmental exploration was associated with job search intensity. The results supported hypothesis 3 but not 4. Job search intensity was significantly associated with initial compensation but was not significantly related to job satisfaction. Finally, the results partially supported hypothesis 5. Job search intensity fully mediated the relationship between environmental exploration and initial compensation.The results of this study have several important implications for job search processes. Most importantly, the results of this study address the linkages among career exploration, job search intensity, and indicators of job search effectiveness.Job search intensity appears to have the most significant impact on job search effectiveness as represented by initial compensation. Environmental career exploration is important because it has an impact on both job search intensity and income attainment. However, the results of this study suggest that the impact of environmental career exploration on initial compensation is completely mediated by job search intensity. Thus, environmental exploration is important in the job search process in that it increases job search intensity. However, the level of job search activity, regardless of the amount of environmental exploration, has the most direct impact on initial compensation.The research is compatible with the coping literature in general. If one views job search as a stressful process, coping behaviors, such as job search intensity, usually have a more significant impact on job search outcomes than only making cognitive adjustments (Wanberg, 1997; Stumpf & Hartman, 1984; Blau, 1994). However, this research suggests that information gathering, such as environmental career exploration,is useful to facilitate job search behaviors. This is also compatible with other coping research (Janis & Mann, 1979). Preparatory job search behaviors could include information gathering activities. They have a direct impact on active job search behaviors. The research supports the view that career exploration is an important initial step that prepares the job seeker for a successful job search. Other issues such as job search intensity, interviewing skills, and developing realistic expectations are also important in having a successful job search. Thus, it is important for theories of job search to include both career exploration and job search intensity to account for job search effectiveness.The results implied that environmental exploration has a greater impact on job search intensity than self-exploration. The current study found that self-exploration was not significantly related to job search intensity, initial compensation, or job satisfaction when controlling for business majors and sex. To some extent these results reflect other research results that found environmental exploration to have more explanatory power with job search processes than selfexploration(Steffy et al., 1989; Stumpf & Hartman, 1984; Blustein & Phillips,1988). The effects of self-exploration may be sample specific. These studies used graduating college students. College students are largely in the career exploration phase of career development (Super, 1957). In this stage of career development,self-exploration is likely to be unrealistic and lead to unreliable assessments.Given a lack of full-time work experience, this population may have insufficient numbers of work and nonwork experiences or inadequate counseling to develop realistic assessments of interests, values, and skills.In contrast, environmental exploration has immediate benefits to college graduates seeking jobs. It may help to determine the types of jobs available and how to apply for them. This information may be used to develop appropriate resumes and responses to interview questions that make them more attractive to recruiters (Stumpf et al., 1984) and help them to secure more desirable job offers.It may be possible that environmental exploration may lead to self-exploration.That is, by examining work opportunities, one may then make assessments of interest in those opportunities. As job seekers gather information about different work environments, they may imagine themselves in different types of work environments. This process may allow them to make some realistic selfassessments about their work interests and abilities. Thus, environmental exploration may have diverse impacts on job seekers. Further research is needed to determine how both self-exploration and environmental exploration occur in graduating college students and the impact of both on job search processes.There are three limitations to this research. First, the student population has some limitations in regard to the generalizability of these results to an adult population. However, it provides a relatively homogeneous sample of job seekers,minimizing the need to control. All job seekers are after entry level professional/managerial positions. Also, most respondents are actively seeking full-time employment upon graduation. Additionally, college students comprise a significant part of the entry level work force. Employers most commonly rely on campus interviews for entry level professional and managerial positions(Rynes & Boudreau, 1986). Thus, there is a need to examine job search processes in graduating college students, with job search intensity clearly being a relevant variable of interest. The results may have been different with an older population,especially between job satisfaction and job search intensity. As one has more experiences in gathering environmental information and is capable of developing more realistic self-assessments, then the relationship of these variables to job search intensity and job satisfaction may be significant. This relationships among these variables warrants investigation with job seekers in the later career stages.Second, the dependent variables were collected at one point in time approximately 6 months after graduation. Wages of college graduates may vary duringtheir first year of employment, as they may seek more permanent and satisfying jobs. It would have been helpful to collect this information at multiple points of time to establish a more reliable dependent variable assessment. Additionally, it might be interesting to investigate the effect that both career exploration variables and job search intensity have on changing jobs and consequently the reliability of the dependent variables. Both job search intensity and self and environmental exploration may impact job stability during the first year of employment.Third, the results are limited to times of low unemployment. During the time of this study, national and local unemployment was consistently lower than 5%. Thus,job seekers may have had more than one job offer if they had actively looked for employment. Nearly all graduates found professional employment related to their major. Only 4 of the 149 total respondents reported that they were looking for employment 6 months after graduation. However, Kirschenbaum and Weisberg (1994) report that weak labor markets minimize the relationship between job search intensity and receiving job offers. Thus, the results may be different in different job markets and a replication in a different labor market is warranted. In summary, this research has both research and practical applications. This research found that job search intensity impacts college graduate wages. While job search intensity is an important variable to consider, other variables may warrant inclusion in future research, such as the need for achievement. Those with a high need for achievement may engage in different environmental exploration strategies focusing on wages, and they may engage in search behaviors that yield higher paying jobs, such as being willing to work in urban centers.Negotiation skills may also be important in securing higher wages after getting job offers. Other research opportunities should address the role of self-efficacy in securing quality job offers.From a practice perspective, the results suggest that job choice processes may have a preparedness stage associated with environmental exploration and an action-based stage associated with job search behaviors. This has important implications for career counseling. First, career counseling needs to emphasize environmental exploration. The results suggest that college students need to gather information about work opportunities to guide their job search. This is likely to overcome issues associated with developmental career indecision (Callanan & Greenhaus, 1992) and get job seekers to engage in positive job search behaviors. It is important to consider that environmental exploration has a stronger impact on job search processes than self-exploration. To some extent these results support the anti-introspectionist perspective (Krieshok, 1998) on job search counseling, given that self-exploration was not a predictor variable in this study. However, it is important to consider that occupational choice and job choice may be two very different processes with different critical constructs. The results also emphasized that counseling efforts should include preparation for an active job search. Career counseling efforts may need to include job search skill development, encouragement to apply for jobs, such as providing self-efficacy training (Eden & Aviram, 1993), and encouragement to prepare for interviews, such as mock interviews, so that job seekers can attain a desirable job opportunity. These efforts appear to be essential to complete the job search process and have job seekers secure employment with desirable outcomes.