تامین امنیت تعهد فارغ التحصیلان: اکتشاف انتظارات تطبیقی دانشجویان قرار دادی، استخدام کارشناسان و مدیران منابع انسانی در صنعت گردشگری
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|20013||2001||13 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||4833 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : International Journal of Hospitality Management, Volume 20, Issue 4, December 2001, Pages 311–323
This research begins the process of mapping out human resource (HR) strategies appropriate to the needs of actual and potential graduate employees. The perceptions and attitudes of placement students, recent graduates working in the sector and managers with responsibility for graduate development were surveyed, looking at the elements that make up the initial psychological contract of students on first encounter with the sector; the types of organisational HR practice that are seen as meeting the needs of employees; the role that universities can play in constructing expectations and bridging gaps between the graduate and the employer. It was found that the nature of the contract shifts from relational to transactional between placement and employment.
This paper explores the issue of graduate commitment through an examination of the state of the psychological contract in the hospitality, tourism and leisure (HTL) sectors. Given that the sector is characterised by relatively high levels of labour turnover and reports (Jenkins, 2001) of a poor image in the eyes of hospitality students, it may face greater challenges than other sectors in attracting, recruiting and retaining high calibre staff. Recent research on this issue presents a mixed picture. A recent report (Doherty et al., 2001) finds evidence of a healthy sector, which invests in graduate recruitment, training and development while qualitative research by other academics, (Jenkins, 2001; Jameson and Holden, 2000), identifies a number of problem areas. The particular focus of this research is on the nature of the psychological contract as seen through the eyes of three key groups: students on HTL sector placements, graduate employees in their first six months in post, and managers with responsibility for graduate development. Attention is given to current commentary and research on the nature of the psychological contract with particular reference to UK graduates in the HTL sector. An empirical study was undertaken to establish a more detailed understanding of the meaning and nature of the psychological contract in the sector from the perspective of the three groups identified above. Findings are discussed in terms of implications for employers in this sector, higher education institutions offering programmes in this sector and researchers. The general research question is as follows: to what extent are organisational HR practices in the HTL sector congruent with the expectations of actual and potential graduate employees?
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
We began this research with the question: to what extent are organisational HR practices in the HTL sector congruent with the expectations of actual and potential graduate employees? Whilst our findings suggest a reasonably high level of congruence between the expectations of the parties, we have identified a number of areas were employee expectations have been underestimated or misunderstood. Arguably, the most notable feature to emerge from the study is the apparent shift from relational demands and expectations as voiced by the placement group to the more transactional expectations of recently recruited graduate employees. This may in part, stem from either uncertainty on the part of managers about which type of contract should be developed or from socialisation experiences shaping expectations. Whilst acknowledging the usefulness of the placement as a mechanism to help structure expectations (Garavan and Morley, 1997), the fall out rates identified by Jenkins (2001) and the negative impressions resulting from placement experiences identified in this study, suggest that the image of the sector is seriously damaged in the eyes of many potential employees. For organisations, there is support for the conclusion that real attempts are made to focus on training and development opportunities. Employers appear to be explicit in their expectations of graduate recruits and these expectations appear to be understood by the graduates themselves. At the same time, a number of conflicting demands and significant differences in expectations have been revealed. Graduate employees are concerned with issues of equity, job variety and context factors like pay and conditions rather than the career development opportunities which organisations may believe are important. Failure to develop HR strategies which focus on areas of importance, may actually be working against the development of relational contracts, with graduate employees exploiting training and development programmes before leaving the sector for better conditions and more interesting work elsewhere. From a research perspective, we hope that we have begun the process of “describing and mapping change in the contract” (Sparrow, 1998, p. 30) and hope we have added to the debate on the nature and type of HR strategy needed to secure a committed graduate workforce, Clearly, however, it is important that more research, preferably longitudinal, focussed on employee–manager dyads and which follows through both graduates who enter the sector and those who leave, be carried out before any clear picture can be sketched.