آموزش به عنوان مقررات و توسعه :اکتشاف نیازهای سیستم های سازمانی کاربران
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|20094||2008||8 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Information & Management, Volume 45, Issue 6, September 2008, Pages 341–348
The view of the organization as a system that ‘processes’ information or ‘solves’ problems is at odds with the dynamics of change associated with the development and use of IS in an organization. A significant consequence of this mismatch is in training that does not meet the needs of either the user or management communities, giving rise to sub optimal organization performance and inertia. We explored such issues by examining recent research into organizational development and training. The particular challenges presented in the development and implementation of large-scale enterprise systems were explored to reveal a discontinuity in the constructs underpinning a development. A theoretic model that bridged some of the gaps between the bodies of research was developed and a brief empirical study provided a proof of concept for the model. The paper concludes with a discussion of the model's implications for theory and practice.
One particularly difficult aspect of enterprise-wide implementation efforts is in providing appropriate training for groups of users whose specialized work and occupational orientations provide little in the way of a universal skill set or knowledge base. Collaborative features of enterprise applications complicate the development of effective training; i.e., tools that are intended to foster cross-functional dialogue and shared responsibility for outcomes. Such tools have the potential to change the way work is performed across an organization if users know how to adapt and apply them in their work. We identified the training needs that arise as new tools span increasingly diverse user communities. We began by summarizing recent research into organizational development and training. A brief empirical study was used to articulate and develop the constructs. A model that highlighted the congruence of the major constructs underpinning the research was then developed to provide a proof of concept and highlight some of the challenges faced by developers, trainers and users of enterprise systems.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Implementing change by merely providing organizations with IS resources and requiring participation in training programs can result in sub-optimal outcomes and poor utilization of the systems. A more comprehensive assessment of existing skills and training needs can help in preparing the organization for change. The processes of explaining and making sense of the changes that surround the implementation of IT in an organizational setting considered in our work highlight the mutual dependence of organizational change and training on a cognitive infrastructure that enables effective communication and collaboration. Current training approaches and techniques can facilitate the conversion of knowledge through combination where the cycles of innovation in organization and systems development are relatively short and concurrent. However, the introduction and use of enterprise systems involves more unplanned and second order organizational change. In order to be effective, these changes require training that supports adjustive, formative, and reinventive learning. However, these training needs are more difficult to assess. The misalignment of training and learning outcomes is largely responsible for the inertia evident in projects that fail through resistance to change or poor change management. Our research suggests that enterprise systems are increasingly used to exploit opportunities for new inter- and intra-organizational processes and organizational forms. Consequently, there is a need to adopt a more developmental perspective of the organization as a creator rather than mere processor of information. The principal components that emerged from our study highlighted the congruence of the constructs that underlie the classificatory schema of organizational change, learning and knowledge conversion. The framework that emerged from our developmental work provided a useful way of identifying and analyzing the training needs of organizations with diverse user communities and continuous change. The limitations of our research are clear, given the specialty of work in the clinical community and the systems that support that enterprise. However, although not immediately generalizable to other settings, the initial test of our framework provided a robust proof-of-concept.