دموکراسی مشارکتی و ارزش شبکه های اجتماعی آنلاین: اکتشاف جوامع آنلاین و آفلاین فعال در جامعه مدنی و فعالیت های سیاسی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|20133||2011||7 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||5941 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Government Information Quarterly, Volume 28, Issue 2, April 2011, Pages 148–154
This article addresses the widely debated question of whether online communication through the Internet will fulfill its potential to enhance democratic processes in society. The paper reports the findings of a survey of groups engaged in some form of civic activity, in both online and offline groups. Comparisons are drawn between the responses of those engaged in both types of group to determine whether the motivations, behavior, and satisfaction of participants differ because of the medium of communication. Contrary to some expectations in the literature, the findings suggest that participants in online groups are marginally less satisfied with their participation in their group. The findings have implications for politicians, policy makers, and groups engaged in civil society when using online channels of communication for democratic discourse.
As government agencies have increasingly begun to use ICTs for communication with citizens, opportunities for online consultation and for participation by citizens in policy development have also increased. These developments have raised a number of questions concerning the nature of citizens' participation in civil society, and whether the use of ICTs might arrest or reverse an apparent decline in citizens' public engagement, as observed for example, by Putnam (2000). This raises the issue of what makes good participation for citizens, and whether these conditions can be created in the online environment. A previous paper by the same authors outlined a number of examples where attempts by government agencies to use online consultation highlighted the potential for online consultation to provide a vibrant medium for extending the reach of the consultative process (Sommer & Cullen, 2009); at the same time, each of these examples revealed shortcomings in the new online channel, reinforcing the need to further investigate the value and potential of ICTs and online channels in citizen–government consultation, and in civil society generally. The objective of this study is therefore to investigate the impact that ICTs may have as a communications channel, and in supporting online networking, on citizens' participation in civic activity, and/or their participation in consultative processes with government. The research questions are defined as: • What motivates people to participate in some form of political or civic activity, such as responding to requests for submissions, participating in a consultation process seeking citizens' views, or offering their views on specific issues to politicians and government agencies? • When citizens participate in discussions of social and political issues, are there differences between participating online (i.e. email, web-based submission, online networks, and/or discussion groups) and more traditional ways of participating (letter-writing, making personal presentations, telephone campaigns, and/or meeting face-to-face in a lobby or activist group)? • What satisfaction do people get from participating in these processes, and do motivations and rewards vary and barriers differ in these various channels?