عددسازی چاپ و نشر: اکتشاف بر اساس مدل کسب و کار موجود
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|20200||2014||12 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||10451 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Volume 83, March 2014, Pages 54–65
Like other creative industries, the book publishing industry is currently experiencing a shift from analogue to digital technologies and formats. This shift challenges existing business models and impels firms to re-examine their product portfolios and core competencies. Through a qualitative case study of the three largest publishing houses in Norway, Aschehoug, Cappelen Damm and Gyldendal, this paper investigates how digitisation affects business models in the book publishing industry. The paper argues that the publishing houses are two-faced in meeting new digital technologies. The industry has come relatively far in developing industry standards and joint distribution systems. However, the functionality and user experience of digital products is still poor, prices are still high, and the share of Norwegian language digital titles is low. In addition, knowledge acquisition from consumers and lead users are suboptimal. Due to divergence in goals, formats and markets, there is a lack of a common dominant design for digital publishing. This represents a substantial uncertainty for the publishers, who are moving step-by-step into the new digital era and whose exploration of new market opportunities and alternative business models remains anchored in traditional and analogue business models. The paper also discusses how current institutions contribute to preserve the analogue publishing regime.
“To survive, they themselves will have to plot the obsolescence of what now produces their livelihood.” (Levitt 1960:47) The book as we know it today has been more or less the same since the introduction of paper to Europe in the early 13th century. Although Gutenberg's invention of the printing press in 1440 and subsequent improvements to printing press technology has affected markets and production quality over the centuries, the art of writing, illustrating and binding have remained valuable forms of cultural expressions, and the age-old essential elements have remained unchanged. That is, until the new millennium, when the uptake of the Internet suddenly made possible the adoption and diffusion of digital technologies disruptive to the analogue publishing industry. Over the last decade a crop of new products have appeared, and online teaching platforms, e-reading devices, book streaming services and social forums have started to infiltrate the book market. Amazon currently sells more books in e-book format than paper . How does digitisation affect business models in the book publishing industry? Based on a case study of the three largest book publishing houses in Norway this paper seeks to illuminate how the new challenges and opportunities of digital technologies affect the book publishing industry. Theorisation on disruptive innovation has emphasised how the introduction of new technologies can restructure entire industries and replace prevailing business models . Often, such large technological transformations go through different phases before settling into a new dominant design . Although new technologies and altered consumer behaviour may require industrial restructuring and market reorientation, in many cases both firms and industries are largely influenced by their previous actions and current specialisations. Such path dependency may lead to myopia  or lock-in regarding product portfolios . Other creative industries such as music  and , film  and advertising ,  and  have been struggling with digitisation for many years, and in moving from analogue to digital technological platforms, the business models of publishing may similarly experience fundamental alteration. Digitisation represents enormous challenges to the book publishing industry , and is likely to restructure publishing as we know it , , , ,  and . The scarce research and theorisation that so far exist on digitisation of book publishing has primarily been anchored in literature on organisation management. Existing literature can be divided into those dealing with the practical management of digitisation on a firm level , ,  and  and those dealing with digitisation at an industry or national level , ,  and . In a similar vein, literature on business models also often tends to treat digitisation from a micro management's perspective  and . Thus, with some notable exceptions , ,  and  few contributions combine or connect the firm and industry level. It is hard to see how contributions on micro management relate to the wider industry and its networks and path dependencies. Indeed, writers such as  have researched the connection between policies and innovation in the book publishing sector, but without addressing digitisation. In this way there is a knowledge gap regarding the relationships between the effects of industrial infrastructure and policies on the industry as a whole, and how these conditions relate to competences, innovation and business models at the firm level. This paper seeks to address this gap in the literature by discussing to what extent and how the business models of three prestigious publishing houses are affected by digitisation as well as discussing how ownership, industry organisation, networks and policies affect firm behaviour. In a context like Norway, with a small home market and strong cultural policies affecting the publishing industry, it seems particularly relevant to combine insights from the firm and industry level. Against this background the paper seeks to answer the following central research question: How does digitisation affect the business models in the book publishing industry? Subordinate research questions include: How do the publishers acquire new knowledge to adjust to the digital era? To what extent are institutional arrangements, such as cultural policies and ownership structures, influencing the digitisation of the book publishing industry? The paper is structured as follows: Section 2 provides a theoretical framework for the study; Section 3 outlines the method applied; Section 4 presents the case study; Section 5 discusses the main findings of the paper; and Section 6 summarises the main conclusions.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
The paper has sought to generate new knowledge about how the three largest and most prestigious Norwegian publishing houses are relating to new digital challenges and opportunities, and to understand whether and how this affects their existing business models. The publishing houses' reactions to this technological paradigm shift so far have been presented and analysed, both from the firm level and an industry level. In many ways the publishing houses are contradictory in their approach to meeting new digital technologies. On the one hand the publishing houses have come relatively far in developing interoperable digital infrastructures, industry standards and joint distribution systems. They have also been active in taking up the new technology at an early stage, creating experimental pilot projects, and implementing organisational change. In these ways, the individual firms have acquired some digital knowledge and tried to position themselves to be able to respond to market shifts and changing technologies. On the other hand, one could argue that the publishing houses are waiting for a dominant design to emerge and are moving step-by-step into the new digital era. More advanced digital projects remain as small experiments outside analogue book production, and digital products and services are still regarded as secondary to the analogue book. The distribution systems that have been developed are still national and still cater to traditional booksellers, reflecting the institutional set-up of national cultural policies and the vertical ownership structure of the industry. The functionality and user experience has been poor, the share of titles available in digital formats is still low, and knowledge diffusion across editorial departments has been weak so far. The initiatives taken often suggest that the publishers are simply selling digital versions of their traditional products on new digital platforms. While the publishers are exploring alternative business models and new opportunities in online publishing, these are primarily anchored in existing business models and traditional distribution networks. This reticence might be due to a high degree of uncertainty caused by the divergence of formats and markets, in combination with the negative transformation pressure created by a lack of a dominant design. This observed business model strategy among the publishing houses is understandable and in line with theory. It also demonstrates how firms behave when they want to retain a position of control regarding the rates of technological change. However, it seems reasonable to question whether a sufficient degree of learning and knowledge development has accompanied this experimentation with alternative business models. This relates to the attraction of new knowledge, exploitation of knowledge from lead users, utilisation of knowledge of consumer preferences and internal knowledge dissemination. Advanced knowledge uptake has so far largely been limited to educational departments, where some products far exceed others in complexity and adherence to the Internet paradigm values. This has created an imbalance of organisational competence, augmented by a lack of knowledge diffusion between editorial departments. Another key finding which may also explain the suboptimal knowledge development is that the Norwegian case is heavily influenced by its industrial, cultural and institutional specificity. The findings suggest that national policies are drawing the publishing industry in two different directions. On the one hand the state acts as a lead user in terms of procuring advanced digital content for educational purposes. On the other hand, the state is safeguarding high quality Norwegian literature as a form of cultural expression, and providing much of the economic stability for the existing business models through VAT exemptions, fixed prices on books in the first period of sales, and a set amount of guaranteed analogue sales for public libraries. This dual role for the state is likely to create an institutional set-up around the publishing industry that serves to strengthen the uncertainty experienced by publishers. The continuing high revenues from analogue sales also act as a disincentive to any urgent change in business models. By and large the publishers are yet to take full advantage of new digital technologies with respect to sales structures, distribution or project management practices. Rather than creating new industrial constellations and networks, the joint digital initiatives that are being taken by the publishing houses can be seen as steps preserving of the national distribution system, and preventing new actors from entering digital publishing. Perhaps because of this we have not yet seen how digitisation can change the nature of the book itself. Instead of exploring iterative and interactive product development more intensely, or embracing a globalised market and taking advantage of better access and higher volumes, the publishers are awaiting a dominant design and are gradually testing out new and parallel business models. Such reactive behaviour, together with sub-optimal knowledge acquisition among the publishing houses and declining entry barriers, might open up space for new types of actors, with other competencies and business models, to take part in the digital reassembly of the book publishing industry.