شناخت و کارآفرینی بین المللی: مفاهیمی برای تحقیق در شناخت فرصت های بین المللی و بهره برداری
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|20268||2005||18 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||7320 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : International Business Review, Volume 14, Issue 2, April 2005, Pages 129–146
International entrepreneurship (IE) research has grown rapidly, encompassing many industries and world regions. Past IE research has examined the macro, industry and firm-specific variables that lead to companies' early internationalization and its financial and non-financial outcomes. Most prior IE research has been correlational in focus and static in design. Focusing on early internationalization, we propose that a significant shift can occur in IE research by applying a cognitive perspective and examining how entrepreneurs recognize and exploit opportunities in international markets. A cognitive approach will allow researchers to probe entrepreneurs' motivations to internationalize and capture their mental models. The article highlights the benefits to be gained from and the challenges associated with using a cognitive approach to IE research.
Research on international entrepreneurship (IE) has grown rapidly over the past decade, reflecting the important issues facing entrepreneurs as they internationalize their operations. Accumulating research findings have led IE researchers to revise the domain of their research territory (Zahra and George, 2002a and Zahra and George, 2002b). As a result, born global (McDougall and Oviatt, 2003 and Oviatt and McDougall, 1994) and established companies (Birkinshaw, 1997) alike are being analyzed in IE research. Researchers have also incorporated multiple theoretical perspectives to explain the antecedents, processes and effects of IE. Currently, research on IE is being conducted in the world's six major continents, with specialized conferences, doctoral consortia and journals devoted to diverse IE phenomena. IE articles and symposia are now routinely included in established conferences and leading academic journals (McDougall & Oviatt). The breath-taking speed by which IE research has grown and become so accepted has led some to question the cumulative value-added of this research. Some IE research has been creative in offering rich insights into complex issues. Other research simply mirrors international business (IB) or strategy research, ignoring IE's unique territory. While we strongly favor integrative and cross-disciplinary research, we worry that the distinctive and rich IE territory is not fully exploited in theory building, research design, or analysis. This has given IE research a mechanical quality that has impoverished theory building and has limited the overall impact of prior findings. The boundaries of the phenomena being examined have also changed to the point that one has to ask: What does IE research cover? What is unique about this research? What is IE's distinctive competence? These and similar questions have already prompted Zahra and George, 2002a and Zahra and George, 2002b to review the IE literature and attempt to reconcile contradictory findings.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
IE research has attracted worldwide attention and recognition. Born globals and established companies alike have to work hard at discovering, framing, enacting, selecting and exploiting opportunities in foreign markets. While these two sets of companies appear to benefit from different factors in building their market positions, they face formidable challenges in identifying the opportunities they pursue. In this article, we have noted that we know little about what goes through entrepreneurs’ minds as they explore their firm's competitive global landscape. We know little also about these entrepreneurs' motivations to internationalize their firms' operations and how these motivations influence the selection of the mode of entry or other mechanisms by which international opportunities are exploited. We have suggested that a cognitive perspective could induce greater depth and variety into future IE research, further improving its scope, relevance and rigor. The use of the cognitive approach can enrich our understanding of the mental models that guide and shape internationalization decisions.