انعطاف شدید صنعتی ـ خدماتی و داخلی ـ خارجی شبکه های تعاونی بین شرکتی در تولید ماشین با فن آوری پیشرفته
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|20319||2013||11 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||7950 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Business Research, Volume 66, Issue 11, November 2013, Pages 2234–2244
Most interfirm studies focus only on the strategies of strategic partnerships, such as joint ventures, technology transferring agreements, licensing agreements; the study here provides interfirm-network knowledge protocols for designing interfirm-service processes in the high-technology machinery industry (HTMI) by small-and-medium enterprise (SME) networks from the perspectives of extremely-rapid industrial-service flexibility (X-ISF). Based on the decision system analysis (DSA) method, this study constructs an X-ISF research model consisting of major variables of extremely-rapid internal ISF (X-I ISF), extremely-rapid external ISF (X-E ISF), and cooperative networks. This study applies a mixed methods (qualitative and quantitative) research design to understand interfirm-network decision-making and the influence of the antecedent conditions of internal and external X-ISF and cooperative upstream-to-downstream networks on firms' X-ISF performance. The study finds that the mutual relationships between X-I ISF and X-E ISF are substantially unbalanced — the impact on firm X-ISF performance by the external-to-internal (X-in) ISF is substantially greater than the impact from the internal-to-external (X-out) ISF. Recognize the need to lead with external-to-internal X-ISF to sustain the adoption-implementation of superior high-technology is the principal take-away strategy implication.
Accurately mapping configural antecedent conditions and outcomes of extremely-rapid industrial-service flexibility (X-ISF) and the recipes of alternative configurations of cooperative networks are new and major topics in industrial innovation and performance research. From the perspective of the high-technology machinery industry (HTMI), due to the high degree of similarity of machines made across several nations, Taiwan HTMI manufacturers confront difficult price-capability international competitions; new international competitors emerge annually that possess low-cost advantages that enable these firms to quickly catch-up both in quality and in market position via X-ISF, that is, extremely-fast ISF. (cf. Lai & Chang, 2009). Small-and-medium enterprises (SMEs) and interfirm-external X-ISF networks represent the basic industrial structure and behavior of Taiwan machine manufacturing firms. Taiwan's machine-manufacturing interfirm (MMI) networks differs radically from other societies of East Asia—for example, Taiwan MMI network behavior is more conservative and consists of SMEs more often versus larger-size and more innovative, single-firm, machine manufacturing in Japan (see Hamilton and Biggart, 1988, Hamilton et al., 1996 and Winckler and Greenhalgh, 1988). Taiwan firms have small but substantial shares in the global HTMIs export markets—executives in these firms write vision statements for their firms that indicate serious commitments to radical innovations in designing-manufacturing machines using X-ISF with the principal objective to achieve success in global markets. Since the net cost of key components is usually high (30+%) of the total manufacturing cost, the key components affect not only the performance of the machine but also the total cost of the machine. This configuration of antecedent conditions indicates that if the Taiwan HTMI firms are to sustain their competitive advantages, HTMI must acquire outside manufacturing resources, and thus the interfirm strategies in creating and implementing X-ISF via cooperative networks play an important role in the Taiwan HTMI. Hagedoorn (1990, p. 17) reports, “…the organizational design of [interfirm] co-operation can be expected to be related to the strategies and economic performance of companies, reflecting their ability to model their inter-firm relationships.” X-ISF is an important driving force for achieving high performance by firms in MMI networks. A gap exists between what executives in cooperative interfirm-networks are actually doing and academic discourse via survey reports on these networks (Huggins, 2001). In-depth research into such network behavior in the HTMI is essential but missing for capturing a clear understanding X-ISF's influence on firm and interfirm performance. The present article provides both maps of X-ISF processes and tests the impact of X-ISF in new machine processes in high-technology manufacturing. The study is unique in providing both qualitative and quantitative examinations of the influence of two X-ISF modalities (internal and external) and cooperative networks on X-ISF performance. X-ISF versus ISF is identifiable by the achievement of sustaining extremely rapid real-time (< 48-h) high-technology machinery computer assistant designs (CADs) to mach-testing (experimental production runs) of new CADS. The findings in the present study show that successful implementation of X-ISF requires both external-to-internal X-ISF (X-in ISF) and internal-to-external X-ISF (X-out ISF) with X-in ISF directing such couplings.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
In the 21st century, the environment and development of technology has become more diverse, the time to market for new products is shorter, the required quality of products is higher and the cost of products is lower. Creating interfirm protocols for (1) sensemaking and deciding on how to decide and (2) designing interfirm-service processes are necessary within an SME network—including deciding on a rubric for gaining admission to the interfirm cooperating network. This study applies DSA and statistical analysis in the research of ISF processes and results in achieving such interfirm consensus and implementing ISF designs. For the past years, due to X-ISF applications, Taiwan has achieved many economic miracles and records in business export. Since most firms in Taiwan HTMI are SMEs, in order to compete with the speedy changes, HTMI SMEs need to constantly improve their technology skills and peruse the high manufacturing quality and productivity. Nowadays, the progress of science and technology (S&T) is speedy at an astonishing rate in nations, and also the business uncertainty and risk are increased in industries. Therefore, X-ISF becomes more important than ever for the manufacturing industries to deal with environmental uncertainty, which also leads to the inevitable situation of the flexibility in the process of production. This study completes X-ISF performance with respect to the X-I ISF, X-E ISF, and cooperative network in HTMI. HTMI has the cooperative network, which is a unique activity to connect manufacturing firms. After interviews with experts in HTMI, this study clearly establishes the research model of ISF in HTMI. For the dimension of X-E ISF, due to the environmental impact of customers requests, the new product, modified product, volume and delivery time are all the elements that enterprises need to meet customers' requirements. Taiwan's SMEs have rapid responding capacities to cope with this requirement and uncertainty. After confirming the situation and final output, enterprises need to deploy and distribute the resources based on the current internal manufacturing structures. For the dimension of X-I ISF, the utilization and management of industrial resources are the primary elements of flexibility in Taiwan. The X-I ISF resources, such as labor, machine and materials provide the diversity of works and maintain the assurance of product's quality, price and delivery time. For the dimension of cooperative network, the cooperative network plays a role of intermediary agent to balance external and internal flexibilities. Since HTMI forms clusters in Taiwan, this represents that Taiwan has popular activity of cooperative network. Cooperative network improves HTMI SMEs and completes the cooperation of HTMI supply chains. According to the results from DSA and statistical analysis, the X-E ISF represents the firms' flexibility to handle external relationships with other firms, and the X-I ISF represents the firms' flexibility to handle internal manufacturing processes of production. In order to reach and maximize the “dynamic efficiency” in cooperative networks, “the main general criterion is an appropriate balance between clear signals pointing to transition and adjustment flexibility” (Nill & Kemp, 2009, p. 675). However, the mutual relationships between X-I ISF and X-E ISF occurring in this study are substantially unbalanced. This demonstrates that the impact from the X-E ISF to X-I ISF is more significant than the impact from the X-I ISF to X-E ISF— the explicit relationships with external firms contribute more to a firm's X-I ISF than the reverse process. X-I ISF is an implicit flexibility and externalizing the process is highly difficult to accomplish. Therefore, for firms in the HTMI the following two-step process may represent the best strategy: focus the ISF interfirm strategy on gaining X-E ISF via external relationships with respect to the handling abilities of modification, volume, and delivery, and then internalize the knowledge of X-E ISF to obtain the X-I ISF of technical-labor, machine, and material flexibilities. Also, inspired by Numagami's (1996) study, internally transferring employees who have experiences on building long term relationships with other firms in cooperative networks may increase the balance between X-I ISF and X-E ISF. Peripheral industries strongly support central factories and satellite factories and give the HTMI great ISF and powerful production advantages. HTMI SMEs use their network of relationships to cope with competitive market conditions, to benefit their international endeavors, and to enhance their managerial performance levels. ISF is a core ability of manufacturing firms. Each firm must achieve and sustain high flexibilities to survive in the global economy. Taiwan's manufacturing industries survive and thrive by means of such high ISF.