تعریف و بهره برداری از روند تکامل در مورد تعامل
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|20476||2013||21 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||14520 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Available online 6 October 2013
In the last decades, there have been researches on development processes that focused on technological evolutions, aiming at anticipating future product releases. The information obtained has been formalized in trends of evolution, and systems to manage and exploit these have appeared on the market. One of the most important examples comes from the TRIZ theory. It uses a set of technological trends of evolution to suggest innovative engineering solution concepts. The research described in this paper analyzes the TRIZ approach to trend discovery and exploitation and applies it in the interaction design domain. A set of trends of evolution about interaction is highlighted first; a method for their effective exploitation is then developed. This is followed by an integration of this method in an existing interaction design framework, and an early validation in the field represents the current state of the research.
The need for an analysis of product evolution emerges when the availability of products on the market far exceeds customer demand. This analysis focuses on how a product's functions and technological features change as time goes by . The results allow hypotheses to be formulated about possible evolutions of that product, as well as generating design suggestions for similar products. What drives both the analysis of the evolution and the exploitation of the results is the desire to reach the ultimate design goal faster, namely product ideality. A product is ideal when the ratio between its positive aspects and its drawbacks is equal to infinity  and . In the real world this ratio is always finite, because it is impossible to eliminate all drawbacks; they must be minimized, together with an attempt to best meet the customers' requirements. Up to now analyses have mainly been focused on technological aspects, in several domains, e.g. industrial manufacturing or the development of new communication media. In the first case, the focus is on enhancing the flexibility of production systems , while the second deals with the improvement of learning tool effectiveness . In both of these, the starting point is the description of real situations where specific technologies are used; pairwise comparisons allow interaction changes to be placed in ordered sets, named trends of evolution. Trends can be seen as suggested paths to follow, describing the states through which a product could evolve . These states are a sort of snapshot of current product characteristics, and do not usually give any indication about how the products move from one state to the next . One of the best known sets of trends of evolution is the one developed in TRIZ, the Russian acronym for the inventive problem solving theory . It was generated by analyzing a vast number of technological patents, and specific tools have been developed to make the outcomes of this analysis as effective as possible in design activities. Other trend-based design paradigms have been developed in several domains, by approaching the trend search in different ways. In , the age of the product is the main parameter that, together with other empirical data, allows the generation and exploitation of trends, mainly focusing on the relationships between technological issues and marketing requirements. The research described in  tries both to foresee the dynamics and effectiveness of design efforts by representing them as equations, and to make them as linear as possible by statistically analyzing the evolutions of similar products. Unfortunately, these all lack a method and/or some tools to effectively exploit the knowledge base of the collected trends of evolution in design activities. Instead of focusing on technological matters, the research described in this paper deals with human–machine interaction ,  and . The term interaction refers to the dialog between user and product, and is based on the definition of usability. As the ISO 9241 standard states, usability is “the effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction with which specified users achieve specified goals in particular environments”  and . This definition assigns the same importance to user satisfaction as to product effectiveness and efficiency. Interaction design – ID – is a recent discipline that focuses on the correct interpretation and implementation of the user–product dialog . ID allows products to be generated that are ready to be easily and intuitively used by most users, and accepted from the outset, thus avoiding problems such as soft reliability issues , etc. Although ID is a quite new research field, there are already many methods and tools focused on user satisfaction, because the newer definitions of product quality are heavily based on this. Early tools related to usability were collections of principles and guidelines, mainly used for evaluation purposes. Some examples of these are the seven dialogic ISO principles and the eight Shneiderman's golden rules . From the design point of view, the most interesting methods couple the analysis of user needs with the generation of design solutions starting from those needs. Some examples are the interdisciplinary approach with a user-system focus , the user action framework , and the intent method . All of this is witness to the fact that interaction concerns are fundamental in order to design successful products. They thus cannot be neglected when predicting the future evolution of products. There are currently no research efforts focused on trends of evolution about interaction; so, the first goal of this research is the generation of a set of trends of evolution about interaction, starting from the investigation of the user–product dialog in several situations in a wide set of different environments. The focus then moves towards the second goal of this research, the development of a method to exploit these trends for the generation of design suggestions. This will happen through the integration of the set of trends of evolution into an existing design framework, the IDGL — Interaction Design Guidelines, developed by the research group, in order to assign it a precise role and maximize its effectiveness in the product development process. The paper starts with an outline of the relevant background for this research: the TRIZ trends of evolution and the IDGL. It then describes the activities to generate the trend knowledge base. The next section deals with the exploitation of these trends, both as a stand-alone method and as an integrated component in the IDGL, by describing an early validation in the field with two products, a fuel delivery system for cars and a refrigerator. This is followed by a discussion about positive outcomes and drawbacks and the conclusions with some hints about future work.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
The research described in this paper deals with the definition and exploitation of a set of evolution trends focused on human–machine interaction. The analysis of some situations initially highlighted a set of evolution patterns, pairs of products presenting meaningful improvements regarding different interaction aspects. Nine trends of evolution about interaction have been generated by ordering and generalizing these patterns. A precise role for these trends has then been highlighted in the design process. They have been embedded in an existing design framework named IDGL — interaction design guidelines. The outcomes of this synergy, as witnessed by some early field tests, show that the generation of design solutions is now better organized and aims at product ideality. Moreover, design time is reduced and the presence of the trial and error paradigm is minimized. A lot of research still remains to be done. The trend knowledge base is still too limited. It needs to be augmented with new trends, states and examples. Moreover, the interaction principles are still the only tool that allows the requirements to be translated into design solutions. The TRIZ laws of evolution  could be exploited in some way to make this translation more effective. The evaluation of the trend relevance, given the specific design context, is left to the designers, while there should be some automatic ranking based on the relationships between trends and product features. Subjectivity still plays a major role in the IDGL-based design process; a sort of robust approach should be considered, perhaps based on belief maps, robust decision matrices, etc. The generation of the CEPs needs some sort of automating, by exploiting the repeated tasks in it. Finally, this research suggests the need for an algorithm to compute the evolution level of a product, in order to compare similar products from the interaction point of view and to be able to say if innovation in interaction is present or not. This will be the main topic of the upcoming activities of the authors' research group.