رفتار سفر تفریحی و اولویت های تنظیمی: کاربرد موجودی اوقات فراغت جدی و اندازه گیری
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|20754||2013||13 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||9210 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Tourism Management, Volume 35, April 2013, Pages 111–121
Surfers are characterized by the time and effort they invest in surfing and their propensity to travel in search for the perfect wave. In spite of such characteristics and the economic significance of surf tourism, little is known about surfing as serious leisure and its implications in surf tourism. Thus, a study was conducted using a convenient sample of 126 surfers to examine whether the six serious leisure qualities (Effort, Ethos, Career, Identity, Perseverance, Benefits) are associated with surf travel behavior and destination preferences. Results confirmed that surfers have a strong disposition for surf tourism and that they show high levels of serious leisure in their six qualities. Statistical tests also revealed that although serious leisure qualities are not associated with surf travel behavior, they do predict destination preferences especially related to the overall surfing appeal of the destination, the variety of waves, and the quality of the natural environment. Management and marketing implications for surf tourism operators and destinations are discussed. Besides filing a gap in the literature, this study augments the marketing intelligence for owners and managers of surf-related business as well agencies and organizations promoting surf tourism.
Since the sixties, the popularity of surfing among participants and spectators has steadily increased fostering a multi-million dollar industry that stimulates local economies (Buckley, 2002a; Frank, Zhou, Bezerra, & Crowley, 2009; Ponting, 2008; Tantamjarik, 2004). Such increased popularity, as well as the surfers' quest for the perfect wave, have created the surf tourism industry (Dolnicar & Fluker, 2003b; Pitt, 2009). In 2007, it was calculated that 112 countries offered some sort of surfing tours or had available surfing-related information for tourists (Ponting, 2008). Although calculating the size and economic significance of the global surf tourism is not an easy task (Buckley, 2002a, 2003), its world total value is likely to be at least one quarter of a billion U.S. dollars (Ponting, 2008). However, such estimate may fall short when taking into account that most popular surf destinations in developed and developing countries have hundreds, and perhaps thousands, of small surf tourism operations which value has never been calculated (Ponting, 2008). This industry also encompasses businesses offering ancillary products (e.g., souvenirs, clothing) to fans, who although are not always surfers, pretend being part of the surfing world mostly through the surfing mode of dress and branded garments (Moutinho, Dionısio, & Leal, 2007). Furthermore, the surf tourism industry promises further growth with the development of more specialized services such as surf schools as well as increase of the market for surfing-related consumer brands (Moutinho et al., 2007). In spite of the size and economic implications of the surf tourism industry, few studies have examined this form of niche tourism (e.g., Buckley, 2002a, 2002b, 2003; Dolnicar & Fluker, 2003a, 2003b, 2004; Ponting, 2008, 2009; Tantamjarik, 2004). In particular, and to the extent of the authors knowledge, it is yet to be examined the application of Stebbins' (1982, 2001) six qualities of serious leisure among surfers and its influence on surf tourism. Aiming to fill such a gap in the literature, a study was undertaken between 2010 and 2011 to examine the application of the Serious Leisure Inventory and Measure – SLIM (Gould, Moore, McGuire, & Stebbins, 2008) among surfers residing in different countries. Specifically, the study addressed two objectives: (1) to explore whether socio-demographic and surfing behavior are associated to the six qualities of serious leisure; and (2) to examine the six serious leisure qualities as predictors of surf travel behavior and destination preferences. Examining the application of serious leisure among surfers augments the marketing intelligence for owners and managers of surf-related business (e.g., tour operators, surfing resorts, surf schools) as well as agencies and organizations promoting surf tourism; this information is critical given the size of the global surf tourism industry and its economic significance especially for surfing destinations in developing countries (Dolnicar & Fluker, 2003a). For example, identifying the demographics and surfing behavior that are associated with the seriousness of surfing can be utilized to craft promotional messages targeting certain surfers' segments. Examining whether the serious leisure qualities predict surf travel behavior and preferences has important management implications as such information can assist the development or enhancement of surfing destinations as well as to guide businesses in the provision of complementary activities and services to enhance the satisfaction of their clients. The following section of the manuscript reviews the literature related to surf tourism and serious leisure, detailing the application of the latter construct among tourism studies. The remaining sections detail the study methods, results and conclusions.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
This study responded to the need of a better understanding of surf tourists given the size of this form of niche tourism and its capacity to produce positive economic impacts especially in less developed areas (Buckley, 2002a, 2002b; Dolnicar & Fluker, 2003a; Ponting, 2009). By examining the relationships between surfing as a serious leisure pastime and surf travel behavior and preferences, this study unveiled information that could be used to strengthen marketing strategies for capturing or retaining surf tourists or to implement managerial actions to better serve those tourists. This study confirms that surfers have a strong disposition for surf tourism (Butts, 2001; Tantamjarik, 2004); not only the majority of respondents have traveled in the past primarily for surfing, but most of them also reported their willingness to embark on surfing trips in the near future. Such large proportion of surf tourists among the sample, along with the overall predisposition that surfers have to travel searching for the perfect wave ( Butts, 2001; Tantamjarik, 2004), may explain the weak associations found between the six serious leisure qualities and the surf travel behavior, especially related to their desire to embark on surfing trips in the future. Such strong disposition for traveling and the higher relevance of the destination surfing appeal (e.g., abundance and/or variety of waves) over the infrastructure should be capitalized by tourism agencies, especially in less developed regions, regions that while comprising ideal surfing conditions may not possess a sophisticated infrastructure nor resources to develop it. Surf destinations willing to attract more skilled surfers should incorporate on their tourism promotional campaigns those serious leisure qualities to which respondents highly agreed upon (e.g., Perseverance, Effort). It is also important that marketing material integrates serious leisure qualities with those characteristics of the surfing destination that were found to be significantly associated. For example, advertising messages could be crafted to portray the surfing appeal of the destination especially related to the variety of waves and the quality of the natural environment as a catalyst for reinforcing the surfing Identity of tourists. Similarly, Benefits that surfers perceive to attain from surfing (especially self-expression) should also be incorporated in marketing strategies along with the variety of waves and the overall surfing appeal of the destination. Negative or not significant impact of benefits associated with enjoyment, recreation and socialization on destination preferences may suggest that such outcomes could be associated with other recreational activities that surf destinations may offer (e.g., surf-themed parties). These results have important managerial implications; destination managers should make sure that their surf destinations have adequate ancillary outlets to strengthen the surf-identity (e.g., souvenir shops, surf-related gear and clothing) and foster social network opportunities (e.g., surf-related parties, surf events) for their surf tourists. In turn the existence of this ancillary product line may help to invigorate the economy of local communities. On this regard, further research is needed to examine predominant activity preferences of surf tourists within the casual-serious surfing continuum. This study contributes to the understanding of surf travel behavior by examining how serious leisure qualities, and particularly perceived benefits, shape preferences of surf travel destinations. However, the authors acknowledge some limitations that should be controlled for in future studies. The most evident limitation relates to the use of a convenient sample which prevents generalizing results and carrying its implications to the surfing community. Additionally, in the attempt to reduce contextual biases by conducting this research within an international approach, this study denied the importance of the social context. Taking into considering that the Benefits quality of serious leisure appears to be conditioned to contextual factors ( Gould et al., 2008), this was a critical limitation especially because the examination of potential differences across regions was not feasible due to the sample size. Although the use of a convenient sample representing surfers from different contexts was an important criterion in the design of this exploratory study, it is suggested that future research efforts control for both limitations to enable generalizations to the world surfing community, and to further examine the influence of contextual differences on the seriousness of surfing across geographic regions. The large proportion of experienced surfers in the sample is another study limitation that prevented capturing travel preferences of novice surfers who may or may not also have strong surf travel behavior. This is critical because more skilled recreationists tend to have different activity orientations and preferences than novice ones (Bryan, 1977; Cole & Scott, 1999). In this sense, future studies may consider stratifying the sample to make sure that enough representation from novice to advanced surfers (and in between) are represented. Taking into consideration the contribution of this study to advance the knowledge of surf-tourism, the size and economic relevance of the global surf tourism, as well as the exploratory nature of this study, future examination is needed to better understand this form of specialized tourism. Specifically, further research is needed to unveil the development process of the surfing Identity and Ethos, as well as different stages in their surf Career as those attributes could influence surf travel behavior and preferences.