همگرایی بازار و استانداردسازی تبلیغات در اتحادیه اروپا
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|2082||2007||17 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||10480 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of World Business, Volume 42, Issue 4, December 2007, Pages 384–400
In this study, we draw on industrial organization and institutional research to explore the relationship between market convergence and standardization of advertising programs. We argue that environmental isomorphism, which maintains that the external market environment is a principal driver of firms’ institutional structures, places pressure on firms to adapt their organizational structures and strategies to changing institutional conditions. We propose that the convergence associated with European market integration will lead firms to emphasize three advertising strategies: creating a uniform brand image, appealing to cross-market segments, and increasing cost performance in advertising. Further, we hypothesize that these strategies will be associated with an overall tendency to standardize advertising strategy and execution. Results of a survey of managers of subsidiaries of Japanese and U.S. firms operating in the EU suggest that firms that believe the EU is converging are more likely to engage in these standardized advertising strategies. Additionally, our findings suggest that firms that seek to create a uniform brand image and appeal to cross-market segments are more likely to standardize their overall advertising programs. Finally, we find that firms’ desire to create a uniform brand image is a function of their goal of building brand equity, regardless of the level to which markets converge. We draw implications for research and practice regarding firm responses to market convergence.
Economic integration among major world regions such as the European Union (EU), North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN) has intensified pressures on multinational corporations (MNCs) to integrate their global operations. These agreements – and the harmonization of laws, regulations, and business practices they facilitate – have provided opportunities for accomplishing this integration through streamlining and consolidating operations and standardizing strategies. Bartlett and Ghoshal's (1989) seminal contribution highlighted the ongoing challenge among MNCs of how to manage the competing demands of global integration and local responsiveness. Since then, scholars and practitioners have wrestled with questions surrounding the conditions under which firms can standardize practices and products across their global operations and those for which they should substantially tailor their strategies to context-bound local conditions (Harzing, 2000 and Johnson, 1995). One dimension of this challenge relates to firms’ market strategies and in particular, the question of whether and how to standardize versus localize advertising. Standardization versus localization of advertising messages has long been the subject of considerable debate. One of the central motivations for MNCs to standardize advertising is to seek a homogeneous image of the firm and its brand in multiple markets. It is widely believed that a uniform brand image across markets can enhance global brand equity (Cateora & Graham, 2004). Potential economic benefits related to cost savings are also believed to be an advantage of standardization, as is the ability to appeal to cross-market segments (Taylor, 2002). The trade-offs between these benefits and adapting to local tastes, preferences, and use conditions have received a great deal of attention from both academicians and practitioners.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
ture research should continue to examine perceptions of convergence in the European Union and across other markets. Additional research on the extent to which firms attempt to create a uniform brand image, appeal to cross-market segments, and save costs through standardization is also warranted. Furthermore, as suggested by Zou and Cavusgil (2002), research that addresses outcome measures associated with global strategies is needed. For example, the issue of the impact of what an effective standardized campaign should do for a company in terms of brand equity needs to be explored in more depth. While the contribution of standardized advertising to financial performance was partially confirmed in this study, more research on measuring return on investment from global campaigns are needs. In fact, research explicitly exploring dimensions of global advertising effectiveness would be highly useful. Given that advertising standardization is a strategy variable that should be driven by both external and internal forces, future research should look at firms’ managerial capabilities in the area of advertising (e.g., creative strategy; research effectiveness; media planning; client relations) and assess which are most closely linked to performance. Finally, the interaction of global and regional integration would be an important avenue for future research. Some scholars and analysts have argued that MNCs should focus on regional strategies before seeking to integrate their global operations (Rugman & Verbeke, 2004). To what extent are firms integrating global as well as regional marketing strategies? Do regions such as NAFTA and EU serve as building blocks for worldwide consolidation of marketing and other strategies? How does advertising standardization contribute to overall strategic positioning of the firm? Research directed toward these and other questions can help to shed further light on the competitive challenges firms face in rapidly integrating and consolidating market environments.