تاثیر خلق و خوی در رفتار مشتری: خلق و خوی کارکنان و عوامل محیطی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|20907||2013||8 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||8050 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, Volume 20, Issue 6, November 2013, Pages 634–641
This review looks at the effect of staff/server mood on customer/client mood and various outcome behaviours such as such as product and service evaluation. It also looks at the role of other stimulus factors such as scent, sound and light on customer affect and cognitions and thence the effects on purchase behaviours. Based on the service-profit chain model, this review considers the scattered research which empirically demonstrates the impact of staff mood upon customer mood and behaviour. The review then goes on to discuss the various ways in which a customer's mood influences their buying behaviour, as well as considering why and when this occurs. Other physical factors that influence customer mood are also considered. Implications for the management of sales staff and sales environments are considered.
Since it was first proposed nearly 20 years ago (Heskett et al., 1994) there has been a tremendous interest in the service-profit chain concept (Kamakura et al., 2002 and Yee et al., 2009). The service-profit chain establishes relationships between profitability, customer loyalty, and employee satisfaction, loyalty, and productivity. The argument is essentially this: Company profit and growth are stimulated primarily by customer loyalty which is a direct result of customer satisfaction. Customer satisfaction is, in turn, largely influenced by the value of all of the services provided to customers. Value is ultimately created by satisfied, loyal, and productive employees. Employee satisfaction then directly influences customer loyalty which, in turn, results primarily from management services and policies that enable employees to deliver results to customers. In short, profit is driven by customer loyalty and satisfaction which is the result of their overall perception of the consumer experience they have, particularly with customer providers. The theory asserts that management practices directly and consistently influence service staff attitudes and behaviours which influence customer responses. Employee satisfaction drives customer satisfaction which leads to profitability through repurchasing and loyalty, which in turn influences employee satisfaction (Yee et al., 2008 and Yee et al., 2009). This review focuses specifically on how the mood of the customer service provider influences the mood of the customer, and thence in turn, the latter's behaviour. It is a topic that has attracted considerable research over the years (Cohen and Areni, 1991 and Gardner, 1985). Grönroos (1990), who focused on customers' perceptions of face-to-face interaction with service employees, considered service provider mood to be one of the most important determinants for service satisfaction and loyalty.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
The service profit chain model assumes there is a causal link between the customer service experience, as provided by an employee, and their satisfaction, which in turn leads to repeat purchases, referral and ultimately profit. It also assumes that the employee’s customer service is, in part, determined by the way they are managed. This review focused mainly on the effect of employee mood on customer service, and to a lesser extent, on physical factors that influence mood. There is an extensive literature on personality trait correlates of work behaviour (Furnham, 2008). We know than Sanguine types (stable extraverts) often make better serving staff because of their optimism and positive mood. To this extent mood is stable over situations and time, and though influenced and modified by managerial and supervisory behaviour, an employee’s personality has considerable impact on their daily moods. Finally, there are a number of important areas of future research. For instance, one question is the incremental impact of mood over other service factors. Thus if the service a customer receives is timely, helpful and valuable, what is the effect of perceived server mood over and above these factors? Next, it is possible there is an optimal mood state and a server who is obviously very happy is judged to be inappropriately positive in certain situations. Third, is mood related to the service and product: thus the impact of a good mood would be higher in a restaurant than a dress shop or funeral parlour. There are also a range of important and intriguing questions remaining for those interested in retail. Should the server try to match the perceived mood of the customer as accommodation theory might suggest, or it is better for staff to try to present a positive mood? Is it better to use environmental modifiers (i.e. music, scent) to influence mood rather than that of people? Are there cultural differences in the expectations and reactions of customers to servers’ mood? Can attempts to influence mood backfire? This remains an important and somewhat under-researched area that is clearly of practical importance.