یک ارزیابی تطبیقی از تنظیمات داخلی برای سیستم های کوچک مستقل فتوولتائیک خورشیدی: یک مطالعه تجربی در یک روستای ساحلی سانداربان هند
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|20918||2010||4 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||2925 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Renewable Energy, Volume 35, Issue 12, December 2010, Pages 2835–2838
Solar PhotoVoltaic (SPV) based systems have been widely accepted technology for rural electrification in developing countries. The standalone SPV home lighting system has increasingly been popular among rural households, while SPV mini-grid supply system is being promoted for rural electrification schemes. This study uses data from household survey to explore the impact of household characteristics on the preference for electrical energy from SPV systems. Econometric evidence shows heterogeneity in behavioural pattern for these two SPV systems. The flexibility in use and cost of systems might explain this difference. Household characteristics such as monthly household income, household size, occupational status of household head, number of room and type of house significantly influence household’s decision for SPV standalone home lighting systems. For SPV mini-grid supply household’s income and monthly expenditure on kerosene are significant predictors. The result reported in this paper might be a valuable input for policy makers to frame right policy mix with regard to provide subsidy on rural electrification programmes.
The challenge to provide electricity in rural areas is a common phenomenon. Grid connected power supply system has been the favoured approach for rural electrification. Normally electrification in rural areas is costlier than urban areas because of geographical adversity, low population density, low purchasing power, low consumption, payment default and many others. Thus, rural electrification schemes depend on huge subsidies in order to make them financially viable. All these factors have resulted in slower progress of rural electrification in many developing countries. Off-grid electrification can provide alternative solution for many rural areas, where power may be generated from renewable sources. Nouni  highlighted that renewable energy based decentralised electricity supply options could be financially attractive as compared to grid extension for providing access to electricity in small remote villages. In India about 30% villages still depend on kerosene for domestic home lighting. However, National Electricity Policy 2005 aimed to achieve 100 percent electrification by 2012 and set a target of thirty-unit consumption per household per month. The least cost solution for a rural off-grid electrification may consist of solar home systems (SHS) or mini-grid connection . Solar PhotoVoltaic (SPV) systems have been the fastest growing energy technology  and . The standalone SPV Home Lighting System (HLS) does not need any major maintenance, consumer can use it independently and unaffected by external factors, while SPV mini-grids are managed by cooperative societies formed by the local government and beneficiaries. The SPV HLS system requires high initial investment which is a major barrier to be a sustainable instrument for rural electrification, despite huge subsidy being provided by the government. For SPV min-grid supply, consumer needs to pay a monthly fee according to consumption, not follow the principle of “free for service”. Overall, financing SPV mini-grid supply is a challenge as the cost of per unit electricity is much higher compared to other available options. Renewable energy has historically been supported by public policy endeavours like tax incentives, subsidies, favourable power purchase contract and so on, apart from its social, political and institutional determinants in developing countries like India  and . Raja  examines the determinants that promote the adoption of SPV systems and found that government initiatives, demonstration sites and finance are decisive factor to the adoption of SPV systems in India. High capital cost of electricity generation has deterred private investment in solar power projects. The subsidized promotion by the government has made such projects viable. In addition to provide infrastructure, capacities must be developed on the availability of components, spare parts, creation of a pool of technicians for installation and maintenance, development of fee collection and maintenance of infrastructure . Since last decade several opinion surveys  and  have been conducted to explore individual preferences for renewable energy. The cost minimization for domestic lighting indicates the use of non-local source, kerosene because the unit cost of lighting through local source like SPV are significantly higher . The present study is the first of its kind, which investigates the comparative evaluation of households’ preference for solar electricity from solar PV SHS and mini-grid supply. The objectives are to determine the role of socio-economic characteristics of the households on the preference for SPV systems and to contrast the preference patterns between these two supply systems. The study uses data from a typical village of Indian Sundarban. The paper concludes by identifying policy implications and provides further research directions.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Renewable energy sources are being provided impetus for the growth of rural electrification in Sundarban. In our study area households are familiar with the use of SPV standalone HLSs and during survey they were asked their preference for SPV mini-grid connection and its merits and demerits. These two systems exhibit heterogeneity in behavioral pattern of household characteristics, which can be explained in terms of flexibility in use and cost factor between these two systems. The outcome of the paper suggests that household expenditure on kerosene is the critical component for the willingness to adopt mini-grid connection. The probability of willingness increases significantly with the successive higher expenditure on kerosene. Households with higher monthly expenditure on kerosene are likely to opt for SPV mini-grid connection. They may perceive that the expenditure on kerosene could cover the cost of electricity, apart from the benefits of using solar lighting systems. The preference for solar electricity might increase if the price of kerosene distributed through PDS is higher. Rural households are more concern about cost factor rather than superiority in services. Thus, partial removal of subsidy from kerosene could lead to faster growth in electrification from renewable sources. This brings out a challenge to the policy makers to solve the trade-off between subsidized promotion of solar electricity and the existing subsidy on kerosene. These findings could provide valuable inputs for future rural electrification programmes from renewable sources.