یکپارچه سازی مشتری در درون توسعه خدمات -مروری بر روش های تجزیه و تحلیل مشارکت های درون مکانی و برون مکانی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|20935||2012||11 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||محاسبه نشده|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Technovation, Volume 32, Issues 7–8, July–August 2012, Pages 419–429
This article aims to contribute to a better understanding of how to integrate customers within service development by assessing different methods of obtaining use information. The article reviews and classifies methods for customer integration and it also presents a new framework that suggests four modes of customer integration in which data is classified either as insitu (data captured in a customer's use situation) or exsitu (data captured outside the use situation) and as either incontext or excontext. Context is defined as a resource constellation that is available for customers to enable value co-creation. Accordingly, incontext refers to methods in which the customer is in the actual use context and has access to various resources, while excontext refers to a situation in which the customer is outside the use context and, therefore, has no direct access to the resources.
Users are a potential goldmine of information for service development; not only in the idea generation phase but throughout the development process. Many existing approaches have aimed to understand the interplay with potential users in order to co-opt user competence and experience. Such approaches include user contribution systems (e.g., NASA), open source techniques (e.g., Microsoft, Cisco), social media (e.g., Facebook, YouTube), simulations (e.g., IKEA's kitchen planner), independent customer websites (e.g., airlinequality.com), and company websites that include certified users and super users (e.g., Lego). These are all examples of users playing active and important roles in developing services. Nevertheless, the understanding of how to methodically integrate users in service development process remains limited. Involving key stakeholders like customers, suppliers and even competitors in innovation processes, has proven to be beneficial. Ritala and Hurmelinna-Laukkanen (2009) discussed the importance of, and challenges in, the cooperation with external stakeholders and argue that “the ability of a firm to reap benefits in innovation-related cooperation is contingent on factors that enable collective value creation and on those that facilitate the individual isolation of the innovations and any subsequent profits” (p. 819). Collective value co-creation is argued to be especially important in high-tech service contexts. Chang et al. (2006) found that supplier involvement contributed positively to the innovation of manufacturing flexibility. Knowledge management systems (KMS) often fail to capture insights from customers; although there are studies and ways of designing and using KMS that are successful. See e.g. Lai et. al. (2009) have identified critical factors that affect employees' satisfaction with KMS and put forward the facilitation of personalization as a particular important factor. This implies a deep interaction with potential users. However, instead of working through employees in order to capture customer needs, companies can with various methods capture the information directly from customers, which will be the focus in this article. Prahalad and Ramaswamy (2000) showed how customer competencies can be obtained and how customers can be integrated within service and quality development by using open source platforms. The concept of service is currently undergoing a paradigm shift, from defining services as a category of market offering to a perspective of value creation; emphasizing value-in-context and the resulting customer experiences. While the old school of thought focused on the differences between goods and services, the new school focuses on what goods and services can do for the customer, the experienced customer value. This renders the old dichotomy between goods and service obsolete. The new school is most often referred to as service-dominant logic (SDL), a term coined by Vargo and Lusch (2004a). An implication for service development is that customers should be involved and that use situations are critical for understanding value creation. Value should be evaluated through the lens of the customer's use experiences. The focus is not on the service or product, per se, but on the value-creating process and the outcome of that process. Although SDL brings a fresh perspective to service and co-creation, scholarly research has done little so far to develop and assess methods for involving customers in the co-creative development process. The main premise of this article is that issues related to the nature of service (activities, collaboration, customers as resource integrators and value co-creation) are important when selecting and using methods for providing useful and critical information in order to better understand customers' experiences of service and value co-creation. However, the article's main argument is that it is important to capture information on value in the use context in order to understand customers and the aspects of value co-creation that are critical for them. We will develop four modes of relating use information to methods for service development from the categorization of the situational and contextual aspects of value co-creation and suggest which methods are most appropriate to capture information from customers in each mode. The article aims to provide a basis for a better understanding of how to appropriately integrate customers in service development processes. We review different methods of obtaining user information and suggest a new framework that includes four modes of customer integration. The article starts by describing its theoretical framework. It then defines customer integration in service development and continues with an overview and analysis of the methods for service development and innovation reported in scholarly journals. Based on this critical review, the article suggests a new framework with four modes of customer integration in service development, based on customers' use situations and resource contexts. The paper concludes with a discussion of its research contributions and managerial implications.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
The article has presented a nuanced picture of how customer integration can be managed by means of different methods. Customer integration is based on learning from and with customers and integrating the resulting information for service innovation. The article shows that various methods are suited for and able to generate and capture various types of use information which is important for managers who are planning to integrate customers to develop new services. The article contributes with a framework for classifying different methods for customer integration anchored in the SDL-logic. It consists of four modes based on information related to the use situation and resource contexts that are available to the customer. We show how information captured in different customer use situations provides information of different characteristics which implies different feasible ways to integrate customers. We also discuss and put attention to the impact of the informer's experience on the information obtained. Furthermore we advocate the development and use of duplex method to promote co-creation by learning from and with customers. Customer integration is becoming increasingly important for the development of service. It is no longer enough to simply follow customers nor can companies expect to lead them; the route to the future lies in walking together with the customers in ‘pari passu’ to accomplish this, the use of appropriate methods for customer integration is essential.