بنیادهای کوچک جهت گیری بازار: تأثیرگذاری بر عدم بازاریابی پردازش اطلاعات مربوط به مشتری مدیران
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|20974||2010||11 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||7650 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Industrial Marketing Management, Volume 39, Issue 4, May 2010, Pages 661–671
This study examines how organisational context influences search, integration, and use of customer information at the level of an individual manager. Drawing upon research on market orientation, market-information utilisation, organisational learning, and marketing organisation, a theoretical framework is set up and tested by using structural equation modelling and a dataset consisting of 228 manufacturing and R&D managers in large industrial firms. Results demonstrate that integration of customer information enhances use of information in decision making. Organisational context influences the use of customer information indirectly by affecting information search and integration. Resource inadequacy and physical distance from sales and marketing contact persons decrease information integration, whereas supervisor customer emphasis increases the search scope of information. Wide search scope of customer information increases information integration but has no direct impact on use.
After almost two decades of research, the positive effect of market orientation on company performance is gaining empirical grounding, albeit the relationship may be non-linear, indirect and contingent on the business environment (e.g., Baker and Sinkula, 1999, McNaughton et al., 2001, Hult and Ketchen, 2001, Harris, 2001, Dadzie et al., 2002, Haugland et al., 2007 and Jimenez-Jimenez and Cegarra-Navarro, 2007). Recent meta-analyses have shown that the impact of market orientation on performance is mediated by innovativeness, product and service quality, as well as by customer loyalty (Kirca et al., 2005 and Ellis, 2006). Furthermore, a positive connection is stronger for the manufacturing firms than for the service firms, and this connection is also dependent on the firm size and the cultural context of the business (Kirca et al., 2005 and Ellis, 2006). These associations have now largely been established, and the research proceeds to examine the implementation and development of firms' market orientation (e.g., Avlonitis and Gounaris, 1999, Kennedy et al., 2003, Hult et al., 2005, Matsuno et al., 2005 and Mason and Harris, 2006). Within market-orientation research, two definitions have dominated the field: cultural (Narver & Slater, 1990) and behavioural (Kohli and Jaworski, 1990 and Jaworski and Kohli, 1993). These conceptualisations are shifting towards reconciliation, as organisational culture is increasingly viewed as an antecedent to information-related behaviour (e.g., Mason and Harris, 2006, Gotteland et al., 2007 and Carr and Lopez, 2007). While the cultural perspective of market orientation focuses on norms and values that encourage market-oriented behaviour in a company, the behavioural perspective concentrates on concrete organisational activities: (1) the organisation-wide acquisition of market information, (2) its interdepartmental dissemination, and (3) the organisational responsiveness to this information in order to adapt to changing market conditions. Related to the behavioural perspective, there is still much to discover about the factors that influence the market-information responsiveness of companies (Beverland & Lindgreen, 2007). Firstly, previous research treats behavioural marketing orientation as a set of activities, but does not examine their mutual relationships (for a notable exception, see, e.g., Carr & Lopez, 2007). Secondly, although market orientation in itself is an organisational-level construct, it is implemented at the individual level. Consequently, understanding the processing of market information at the individual level is an important factor in explaining the organisation-wide responsiveness to customer information (Jaworski & Kohli, 1993). Yet to date, most of the primary market-orientation studies have been conducted at the strategic business-unit level, albeit the utilisation of market information has been a topic evident in the general marketing research agenda in recent years (e.g., Souchon and Diamantopoulos, 1999, Frishammar, 2003, Campbell, 2003, Sussman and Siegal, 2003 and Toften and Olsen, 2004). As long as the analysis of market orientation remains at the organisational or functional level, it is both difficult to pinpoint exactly how managerial interventions and organisational factors affect a firm's market orientation, and to determine why some interventions are more effective than others. More research is needed on why some employees are better than others at gathering market knowledge and customising it to their own use (Jacobson & Prusak, 2007), and what the individual-level responses to market-orientation schemes are (Kennedy et al., 2003 and Schlosser and McNaughton, 2007). In order to fill in these research gaps, I operationalise the three firm-level dimensions of behavioural market orientation as individual-level activities (search, integration and use of customer information1), and examine how they are influenced by the characteristics of organisation and the leadership (Gotteland et al., 2007). Moreover, I combine the insights from the general information processing, knowledge-transfer, organisational learning and marketing-organisation literature with market-orientation research. This amalgamation is needed, because the three activities of the behavioural market orientation form the process of learning about and acting on markets (Day, 1994 and Souchon et al., 2004). To some extent, they are essential skills for any company, not only those striving to become market-oriented. Accordingly, several studies positioned outside market-orientation research have analysed information gathering (search), sharing (dissemination) and use (e.g., Beyer and Trice, 1982, Sinkula, 1994, Argyris, 1999, Zahay and Griffin, 2004, Jayachandran et al., 2005 and Veldhuizen et al., 2006). A solid body of research has also emerged that has focused on the organisation of marketing and sales and its relationships with other functions (see, e.g., Ruekert and Walker, 1987, Kahn and Mentzer, 1998, Maltz and Kohli, 2000, Zinkhan and Verbrugge, 2000 and De Luca and Atuahene-Gima, 2007). These studies on cross-functional relationships are closely related to the implementation of market orientation. Specifically, the aim of the present study is to build on and to extend the research on market-information use at the individual level that was conducted by Fisher, Maltz, and Jaworski (1997) and Maltz, Souder, and Kumar (2001) as well as on the synthesis study of market orientation by Carr and Lopez (2007). Fisher et al. (1997) examine the connections between interfunctional relationships (information-sharing norms and integrated goals), communication behaviours and the market-information use of engineering personnel. Maltz et al. (2001) investigate a number of integrating mechanisms that influence interfunctional rivalry and its direct and mediated effects on market-information use by R&D managers. These studies combine the individual-level information use with the cross-functional integration literatures. Yet they do not explicitly address the other two components of market-oriented information processing at the individual level: information generation and dissemination. The contribution by Carr and Lopez (2007), in turn, aims at specifying a model that treats the market-oriented culture as an antecedent to the market-oriented conduct, examines the causalities between the generation and dissemination of and responsiveness to market intelligence, and connects them to employee response. However, Carr and Lopez (2007) measure market-oriented behaviour at the level of a strategic business unit and not at the individual level. The present study has two main contributions. Firstly, it brings in the concepts of information integration ( Jayachandran et al., 2005, De Luca and Atuahene-Gima, 2007 and Chou et al., 2007) and information search scope. The focus here is to examine how integration and search scope mediate the relationship between organisational factors and the use of the customer information that R&D and manufacturing managers receive from the sales and marketing. This study therefore enhances our understanding of how organisational-level interventions influence responsiveness to market intelligence at the level of an individual employee. Secondly, as to the antecedents of market orientation, this study produces new knowledge concerning the impact of interfunctional distance and resource inadequacy on the processing of customer information. The effect of co-location on communication and cross-functional relationships has produced mixed results (e.g., Maltz and Kohli, 1996, Maltz et al., 2001 and Ganesan et al., 2005), and the role of resource allocation in customer information processing has been neglected in the previous research.