آیا احساسات در ارتباط صاحب سبک رهبری و مدیر مشتری محوری و عملکرد در محیط خدمات نقش واسطه بازی می کند؟
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|20984||2011||11 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||8470 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : International Journal of Hospitality Management, Volume 30, Issue 4, December 2011, Pages 942–952
This study examines the dynamic relationships among leadership style (transformational and transactional), emotion in service employees, customer orientation (dimensions of enjoyment and needs), and job performance. The study proposes a model based on existing literatures and examines the mediating role of service employees’ emotion in the relationship between leadership style and their customer orientation. The study found that all four elements of transformational leadership have a significant effect on positive emotion. Emotion is found to have a significant influence on both enjoyment and needs dimensions of customer orientation and to partially mediate the relationship between leadership style and customer orientation.
The topic of leadership has received a lot of attention from researchers of various disciplines as leadership influences followers’ attitudes and behaviors, and thus, is considered to play a pivotal role in organization development and job performance. Researchers in the fields of organizational behavior and leadership have examined leadership styles and their effects on such job-related variables as job satisfaction, job stress, role conflict, job performance and organizational commitment (Humphreys et al., 2003, MacKenzie et al., 2001 and Stock and Hoyer, 2002). The sales management literature also suggests that leadership style affects attitudes and behaviors of sales managers or sales people, and studies in this area have focused on examining the influence of leadership on such outcome variables as trust, role ambiguity, sales performance, and satisfaction with the job (MacKenzie et al., 2001). However, very little is known about how leadership style affects service employees in a service setting. In the service industry, employees play a critical role in determining the quality of service and customer's overall experience with the company. Thus, service employees’ disposition to orient their focus to customers (customer orientation) is an essential element for making a successful service delivery, achieving customer satisfaction, and earning repeat business. Many researchers (Mowen, 2000 and Brown et al., 2002) treat customer orientation as a high-level personality trait called “surface trait,” an enduring disposition to behave in a consistent manner in a specific context. For example, a service employee may treat customers with delightful manners at work, revealing his/her surface trait that is specific to the given context (on-the job), while the same person may not behave the same way at home. Our approach is consistent with prior research that customer orientation is a surface trait that is context-specific (e.g., job-related context). Researchers suggest that there are different dimensions of customer orientation (Brown et al., 2002). For example, Brown et al. (2002) view that customer orientation encompasses need dimension (employee's tendency to meet the needs of the customers) and enjoyment dimension (employee's tendency to draw pleasure from serving the customers). Examining different dimensions of customer orientation and their separate effects on service delivery process will be useful because it will allow us to have a deeper understanding of the influences concerning customer orientation. Therefore, this study, by examining how leadership influences service employees’ customer orientation, adds to an insufficient but slowly growing body of knowledge about leadership style and its influences on service-related variables. A recent stream of research suggests that understanding service employees’ emotion is important for understanding their attitudes and behaviors as emotions are at the core of human experiences. For example, some studies suggest that “emotional labor” service employees are required to perform is an intrinsic part of the job and employees’ emotion is related to their attitude toward the job, job performance, and satisfaction with the job (Bitner, 1992 and Kelley and Hoffman, 1997). These studies imply that emotion should be considered in examining the dynamic relationship between leadership style and service employees’ attitude and behaviors. Although emotion has received a lot of attention from researchers especially in the area of services marketing, there is very limited research conducted on the role of emotion in explaining the relationship between leadership style and employees’ attitude and behaviors. This study is an attempt to narrow this gap in the literature. Specifically, this study will address the following research questions: (a) Does leadership style have a significant effect on service employees’ emotion? If so, which style is more effective at arousing positive emotion and reducing negative emotion in service employees? (b) Does emotion affect customer orientation in service employees? (c) Does customer orientation influence job performance? If so, which dimension of customer orientation is more effective at enhancing job performance? and (d) does emotion mediate the relationship between leadership style and customer orientation? Understanding the influence of leadership style on employees’ emotion, which is expected to influence customer orientation and job performance, is important from the strategic aspect of developing a leadership style that contributes to arousing positive emotion and instilling customer orientation in service employees and enhancing their job performance. The results of the study will reveal not only the role of leadership style in arousing emotion but also the role of emotion in the relationship between leadership style and customer orientation. The findings will have important implications as to how organizations can achieve high customer orientation and job performance.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
This study examined the dynamic relationship among leadership style, emotion, customer orientation, and job performance. The finding of the study suggests leaders should be able to cultivate positive emotion in employees when they exhibit transformational leadership behaviors such as displaying core transformational leadership behaviors, holding high expectations of employees, showing supportive leader behavior, and challenging employees intellectually. The study supports that emotion plays a very important role in orienting service employees to customers (directly) and enhancing their job performance (indirectly). The study also shows that leadership style has a significant direct effect on service employees’ customer orientation, which affects the quality of service, and ultimately, customer satisfaction. In sum, the study revealed the important role of leadership style in arousing emotion and instilling customer orientation in service employees and the mediating role of service employees’ emotion in the influence of leadership style on customer orientation. There are some limitations to this study. First of all, the proposed model was tested in a particular industry (i.e., the restaurant industry), and this requires caution for interpreting the findings of the study. Future studies may want to test the model in multiple service contexts (e.g., low customer contact industry vs. high customer contact industry) to generalize the findings. Second, performance was measured as a subjective variable (self performance evaluation), and the variance of performance was not explained well by its antecedents. Future studies may want to adopt objective measures of performance (e.g., sales revenue) and include more variables that explain performance. One interesting avenue for future research is to investigate the potential mediating role of customer orientation in the context of leadership style and objective measures of performance.