سوابق تعهد و اعتماد در روابط مشتری، تامین کننده در بازارهای فناوری بالا
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|21094||2001||16 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||8597 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Industrial Marketing Management, Volume 30, Issue 3, April 2001, Pages 271–286
The level of complexity and inherent perceived risk involved in customer relationships in high-technology markets leads to an intricate interplay of factors determining commitment and trust that in turn affect customer intentions to remain in the relationship. In this article, we develop a model in which aspects of the product, relationship management activities, and market variables are discerned and taken into account simultaneously as antecedents of trust, commitment, and intention to stay. The results from a qualitative and a quantitative study provide evidence for the influence of types of antecedents of trust, commitment, and intention to stay in supplier–customer relationships in high-technology markets relationships. It is shown that particularly affective commitment plays an important role in these relationships
Firms operating in high-technology markets must face the demanding challenges of environmental complexity. The complex nature and volatility of high-technology markets create uncertainty and contribute to perceived risk both on the supply and the demand side . Suppliers of high-tech products must cope with the technological skepticism frequently exhibited by buyers who delay or postpone their purchase of the product  as well as obsolescence and the threat of competing technologies 3 and 4. Alternatively, buyers in this market often face switching costs resulting from the fact that they have made commitments to a certain technology or a particular vendor 5, 6 and 7. As the number of players in high-technology markets is frequently limited, switching barriers as well as interdependence are relatively high . Many buyers are developing single source suppliers , and many suppliers are striving for closer ties with their customers . Furthermore, it has been demonstrated frequently that in addition to the high-tech product, both sales person expertise and after-sales support and service and communication effectiveness are essential ingredients for supplier success in high-technology markets 9, 10, 11 and 12. Extensive contract negotiations and regular maintenance requirements lead to an atmosphere of multiple interactions between individual buyers and sellers in which communication and cooperation play an important role . This phenomenon has been referred to as the “multiheaded customer and seller” . The level of complexity and inherent perceived risk involved in relationships with customers forces suppliers of high-technology products to allocate investments among various available assets. In addition to product and after-sales service quality, relationship investments have to be made with regards to such matters as account support, conflict regulation mechanisms and increasing switching costs for customers . Apart from monetary returns on investment, a number of nonmonetary returns have been identified in the relationship marketing literature . Particularly, commitment and trust frequently have been identified as essential “relationship building blocks” 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23. Both variables have been successfully used as indicators of relational continuity. However, whereas ample and well-supported models have been developed for identifying relationship success or failure in business relations, empirical knowledge of relationships between firms operating in the environment of the high-technology market has remained relatively scarce . It is not clear how market-, relationship-, and product-related variables influence buyer–seller relationships in terms of commitment, trust, and the intention to continue the relationship in the future. In this article, therefore, we develop and empirically test a model that integrates variables from the environment of high-technology markets with the relationship variables of commitment, trust, and relational continuity. This article is structured as follows. First, we review the relationship marketing literature with regard to the variables incorporated in our model and discuss their interrelationships. Subsequently, we will report on the results of a study that was conducted to empirically test our model. We conclude with a discussion of the theoretical and managerial implications and directions for future research.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Relationships in high-technology markets are a complex phenomenon. As Morgan and Hunt  and Wilson  suggest, commitment and trust are central constructs in marketing relationships. To achieve customer commitment and trust, suppliers of high-technology products have to invest in diverse areas. In this article, we developed a model in which three critical areas of relationship-specific investments are discerned and taken into account simultaneously. With respect to antecedents of affective commitment, our results provide support for a positive relationship between the relationship characteristics and affective commitment. This means that activities aimed at managing the relationship with customers contribute to a perception of an enjoyable relationship. Similarly, trust has a positive impact on affective commitment in supplier–customer relationships in high-technology markets. This is in line with the results from previous research 17, 19, 21, 25 and 73. Trust pertains to a customer's confidence and faith that the supplier will be reliable and willing to listen to the customer's wishes and act in his best interests. Rempel and Holmes  argue that trust results in a positive attitude towards the exchange partner in relationships that is reflected in affective commitment. Finally, we find a positive relationship between market characteristics and affective commitment. Although this finding is in line with the results from previous studies 20, 23 and 56, it still may seem counterintuitive. The positive relationship between market characteristics and affective commitment in high-technology markets may be explained as follows. It may be indicative of the fact that due to the limited number of suppliers, a high degree of dependence and high switching costs and risks, suppliers of high-technology products, and services may have a relatively powerful position in the market, often as a single source supplier. Frazier, Gill, and Kale  conted that in such situations the powerful party does not have to resort to coercive measures to ensure well-functioning relationships but instead use noncoercive strategies that result in an exchange atmosphere that is perceived as positive and agreeable by the more dependent partner in the relationship. Kumar, Sheer, and Seenkamp  argue that such a positive exchange atmosphere may enhance parties to remain in a relationship on the basis of affection. With respect to trust, we find that both offer characteristics and relationship characteristics have a positive impact on this relationship variable. In the context of the market for high-technology products, customers must necessarily rely on suppliers to give “credence” to the product offering as their information and knowledge largely depends on the supplier's efficacy. In addition to product-related criteria, service and account support are often cited as major reasons for choosing a supplier in high-technology markets. Furthermore, relationship managing activities by suppliers often are geared towards achieving the customer's confidence by information sharing, cooperative synergy, and lowered levels of perceived risk. For instance, an open information exchange in which proprietary data is shared will instigate customers to work more closely with their supplier and to share their information too. We find that calculative commitment is relatively strongly determined by market characteristics. As a relatively large degree of dependence exists in high-technology markets, the motivation to protect idiosyncratic investments in the relationship with a supplier would be in the interest of the customer. The relative impact of market conditions also can be accounted for by the fact that there are likely to be few alternatives that can replace the current supplier in the market. On the other hand, we find a negative relationship between trust and calculative commitment. The less a customer will have confidence in the supplier, the more the motivation will be based on a calculation of costs and benefits. In terms of the consequence of our relationship variables, our results provide support for the positive impact of the three variables on the intention to remain in the relationship. Our study provides evidence for the relatively important role of affective commitment in business relationships. Due to the complexity of relationships (relatively high uncertainty as well as large investments), all three variables play a role of some importance. The decision to remain in the relationship with the supplier will be based on affective as well as cognitive motivations. We also encounter a direct effect of offer characteristics on the intention to continue the relationship. At the heart of the purchase decision process lies an inventarization of product features that a customer desires from a new product. The centrality of product characteristics may be an important reason why offer characteristics has a direct impact on intention to stay.