اثر ارتباط خریدار - تامین کننده بر پیاده سازی قابلیت ردیابی در صنعت سبزیجات
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|21168||2006||12 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||7546 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management, Volume 12, Issue 1, January 2006, Pages 39–50
The increasing importance of food safety has made traceability a crucial issue in the agri-business industry. In this article, we have analysed the factors that shape buyer–supplier relationships, and how they influence the traceability of raw materials. In order to do so, first, we have reviewed the literature to develop an analytical framework. Next, we have carried out four case studies on vegetable firms with the purpose of uncovering the variables that characterise buyer–supplier relationships, and their influence on traceability in this sector. Finally, we have compared the observed links with the conceptual framework derived from the literature in order to build an improved model.
In the food industry, products to be consumed must be free of any kind of hazards for consumers’ health. Traceability is the registering and tracking of parts, processes, and materials used in production (Cox et al., 2002). In this sense, traceability becomes an indispensable process to prevent consumer's hazards and a crucial mechanism to assure quality in food firms. As of January 2005, European Union authorities require that food firms ensure quality by tracing all products in all stages, from the supplier all the way to the end consumer. Traceability is a mechanism that requires and reinforces a maximum level of co-ordination between firms and suppliers, and between firms and retailers. Therefore, for researchers interested in the supply chain literature, traceability in food industries may become a relevant aspect to study. The main objective of this article is to determine how the variables that shape the buyer–supplier relationship influence the implementation of traceability of raw materials in the specific case of vegetable firms. The paper is organised in four sections. In section two, we have carried out an extensive literature review on buyer–supplier relationships in different industries in order to derive an analytical framework. In the third section, the methodology employed in this project is described. We have conducted in-depth case studies in four vegetable firms. Cases are described in the fourth section. Then, in section five, we have analysed the data contained in the cases, and have isolated those variables that determine buyer–supplier relationships in the vegetable industry and its influence on traceability implementation. Finally, we sum up our conclusions, presenting an improved model, and ideas for further research.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
The variables we have found in the analysis have been clustered into three factors: those associated with the firm (buyer); those associated with suppliers; and finally, those linked to the competitive environment. These three factors coincide with the ones described in the conceptual framework derived from the literature review, even though we have found some slight differences. These are: 1. Supplier-specific factor. In the case of vegetable industry, we have found two additional variables that affect buyer–supplier relationship, which do not appear in the conceptual framework. They are the type of suppliers (individual farmers, co-operatives) and geographical origin of suppliers. Certainly both are industry specific. On the other hand, size, internationalisation, strategy and top management commitment, variables that are cited in the literature, do not appear in our analysis. With respect to internationalisation, this happens because suppliers are small and only work with local firms. We have found in the case studies that, as long as firms may exclusively depend on national suppliers, they will not import vegetables. Regarding strategy, farmers in Spain, in general, are characterised by a low degree of awareness about the importance of traceability. This is so because of a lack of a quality-oriented strategy in the Spanish agricultural sector. Finally, characteristics of raw materials appear in both the analytical framework and the empirical study, but there are aspects in the vegetable industry that are specific such as the influence of soil, types of seed, and perishability. 2. Firm-specific factor. Strategy and characteristics of final product are variables that appear in the literature review and that have been also identified in the case study analysis. Though, from the case analysis top management commitment was not isolated from strategy. We would like to emphasise the fact that internationalisation, size and vertical integration, variables that do not appear for firms in the conceptual framework, seem to play an important role in the vegetable industry. This may be explained in two ways. Firstly, previous research on buyer–supplier relationships has been mainly focused on supplier characteristics. Secondly, some of the variables found in our study are industry-specific, such as vertical integration. 3. Competitive environment factor. The legal arrangement is the only variable that appears in both the conceptual framework and the model developed in this paper. There are two variables, certificates of origin and consumers’ pressure, which are industry specific. On the other hand, infrastructures, degree of concentration, competition, and availability of suppliers are variables that are cited in the conceptual framework but do not appear as relevant in the vegetable industry. After pointing out these differences, we have developed a model that is described in Fig. 9. From our analysis we conclude that buyer–supplier relationships in the vegetable industry are shaped by three factors, depicted in the model, which are formed by a number of variables, all explained through the paper. The degree of collaboration between buyers and suppliers is influenced by all supplier specific variables, by two firm specific variables (strategy and vertical integration), and by one competitive environment variable (certificates of origin). The resources employed in traceability activities are affected by firm specific variables (internationalisation, size and characteristics of final product) and competitive environment variables (consumers’ pressure and legal environment). Finally, the model shows that the traceability mechanisms and the buyer–supplier coordination are mutually reinforcing. The model benefits from previous research done on buyer–supplier relationships and includes some considerations that are pertinent to the specific circumstances of the vegetable industry. Full-size image (45 K) Fig. 9. Buyer–supplier relationships’ model. Figure options In order to generalise our results, further research must be carried out. A larger sample may allow the generalisation of findings through the use of quantitative analysis techniques to test each one of the propositions introduced in the Findings. Another useful line of research would be studying the financial costs and benefits involved in traceability. A longitudinal analysis in order to determine the way in which the different propositions presented in this paper affect the mechanisms employed in traceability by different firms would be also interesting.