روابط ترکیبی خریدار تامین کننده در بازار الکترونیک جهانی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|21173||2007||21 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||9628 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Information and Organization, Volume 17, Issue 2, 2007, Pages 89–109
Research on the mechanisms for conducting business with suppliers has traditionally centred on the nature of arm’s length and embedded relational models. While such models provide a basis for understanding market and closely integrated approaches to supply chain management it has been recognised that a variety of hybrid models occur in practice. This paper identifies and examines a hybrid model of buyer–supplier relationships that forms part of a portfolio of relationships managed by a large Australian organisation. The hybrid model takes a local community perspective within a market based mechanism. The characteristics of the hybrid model are underpinned by the motivation to maintain goodwill in the supplier community and employ a global competitive electronic marketplace for procurement. Strategies to manage local suppliers and consideration of their role and standing in the local community are important factors that large organisations need to incorporate in hybrid procurement arrangements.
Buyer–supplier relationships have been theorised in terms of arm’s length and embedded relationships (Uzzi, 1997). Loose collections of companies that maintain impersonal and shifting exchange ties are characteristic of arm’s length relationships and markets (Powell, 1990). At the opposite end of the relationship continuum are stable networks that maintain close social ties termed embedded relationships. This model has been accepted in much of the debate on the use of information technology to support these relationships (Schultze & Orlikowski, 2004), although increased attention has been given by researchers to alternative relational forms (Baker, 2002). This paper examines a particular type of buyer–seller relationship that serves the needs of local constituents and can be viewed as a hybrid relationship model. The research purpose is to identify the characteristics and benefits associated with hybrid models that consider local constituents. Within this context our main research question is: How can a large company effectively involve local suppliers within a global procurement system? The motivations for answering this question are related to the problems faced by large companies that wish to take advantage of global procurement systems but avoid alienating local suppliers. For most companies it is important to maintain some local suppliers, firstly, because of the speed with which deliveries of products or parts can be made or services provided for time critical purchases and secondly, to maintain socially responsive practices that support business in the local community. Although the literature has examined the benefits of electronic marketplace participation, few studies have examined the strategies and complexities of maintaining a supportive local supplier culture when adopting a global procurement platform. If a company does not address this local/global challenge with effective strategies then it may lose goodwill in the local supplier community that could result in a lack of cooperation related to the supply of critical goods and services. From a broader community perspective a loss of goodwill can result in difficulties related to obtaining planning permission, trade union support or government subsidies. There is a danger when implementing global procurement platforms that the wider organizational implications are overlooked. The adoption of global e-auctions is a highly strategic venture where the corporate social responsibilities need to be considered. Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is almost universally adopted by senior managers as an integral part of their executive roles, and can be motivated by self-interest, altruism, strategic advantage or political gain (Pearce & Doh, 2005). The debate on CSR centres around how a company can benefit society beyond the direct interests of shareholders? Some companies have focused for example on the support of community groups, approaches to the environmental issues and ethical marketing (Maignan & Ferrell, 2004). The role of electronic marketplaces and how they can be used to support local suppliers is also an issue of similar significance.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
The case study on Caradon has addressed the call from Grover et al. (2002) for in-depth longitudinal case studies that investigate the competitive and cooperative cycles within organisational relationships. The trend towards globalization, fuelled by developing information technology, is affected by a complex interplay of economic, social, political and cultural factors. Organisations therefore need to take a broader perspective towards inter-organisational information systems, such as e-marketplaces, and maintain awareness of the far-reaching influences of adoption. The economic benefits of globalization and e-marketplace participation that have been stressed in the literature cannot be fully realised without consideration of the relational social, political and work practice issues. In particular, firms may need to develop hybrid buyer–supplier models that effectively harness the contribution that local suppliers can make and in a wider sense that maintain goodwill in the local community. The development of hybrid buyer–supplier structures is likely to be a difficult process for many companies since they have to reconcile different stakeholder pressures such as shareholders and local constituents. The process is made more difficult because companies lack guidance and experience in balancing the sometimes opposing local and global forces. Although this paper has examined the nature of hybrid buyer–supplier relationships within such an environment we have not covered in detail the processes and stages that need to be developed to obtain a desirable outcome for all parties. A process perspective provides opportunities for further research. In addition, the trend of globalisation has created a state of dynamic change that is impacting on how companies develop and manage relationships with suppliers. This provides opportunities for further research on many other forms of hybrid relationship where information technology plays an integral role. Organisations that take a purely economic view of global electronic marketplace participation can face a number of dilemmas that are difficult to resolve, such as a lack of trust in supplier relationships, local community opposition and dissatisfied employees. In contrast, hybrid models that encourage local supplier participation in e-marketplace trading offer a more realistic and sustainable way to reduce the costs of procurement. Although information and communication technologies are seen as a facilitator of globalization, the same technologies can be used to support and encourage local constituents.