روابط تامین کننده - تامین کننده در تریادهای خریدار - تامین کننده - تامین کننده: مفاهیمی برای عملکرد تامین کنندگان
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|21205||2010||9 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||6837 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Operations Management, Volume 28, Issue 2, March 2010, Pages 115–123
A growing number of studies and evidence from industries suggest that, besides managing the relationship with its suppliers, a buyer needs to proactively manage the relationships between those suppliers. In a buyer–supplier–supplier relationship triad, the buyer, as the contracting entity, influences the suppliers’ behaviors and the relationship between them. By considering the relationships in such a triad, we are able to gain a richer and more realistic perspective of buyer–supplier relationships. In this study, our goal is to examine supplier–supplier relationships in buyer–supplier–supplier triads, focusing on how such relationships impact the supplier performance. We frame the supplier–supplier relationship as co-opetition—one in which competing suppliers work together to meet the buyer's requirements. We investigate the role of the buyer on such relationships, and how the buyer and co-opetitive supplier–supplier relationships affect supplier performance. We find mixed empirical support for our hypotheses. However, we are able to demonstrate the dynamics of supplier–supplier co-opetition in the buyer–supplier–supplier triad. We point out the need for further studies in this area.
To improve the flow of ideas and materials, many buying firms now work with a smaller number of suppliers and relegate to them much of the product design and production coordination (Mol, 2007, Ro et al., 2008 and Youngdahl et al., 2008). Buyers recognize how upstream suppliers’ operations affect their downstream customers (Latour, 2001 and Nishiguchi and Beaudet, 1998). In particular, the way suppliers work with each other (e.g., supplier–supplier relationships) has strategic importance to the buying firms (Choi et al., 2002 and Lazzarini et al., 2008). One salient characteristic of supplier–supplier relationships is that these suppliers compete and collaborate at the same time. Recent supply management studies call such dynamics co-opetition (Brandenburger and Nalebuff, 1996 and Davis, 1993). Co-opetitive supplier–supplier dynamics were first observed in the sourcing practices of the Japanese automotive industry (Asanuma, 1985, Gadde and Håkansson, 2002 and Richardson, 1993). These early studies documented cases where buyers sometimes encouraged suppliers to work closely together, while other times they kept the suppliers apart. Recent studies also suggest that buying firms are proactively creating co-opetition among suppliers to elicit both collaborative synergy and market efficiency (Cross, 1995, Dyer and Nobeoka, 2000, Sako, 2004 and Wu and Choi, 2005). Choi et al. (2002) established “supplier–supplier co-opetition” as an archetype of relationships between suppliers. Wu and Choi (2005) subsequently expanded co-opetitive supplier–supplier relationships to include various forms and highlighted the roles that buying firms can play in creating them. They illustrated how buyers can strategically manage supplier–supplier co-opetition to improve supplier performance. These emerging studies of supplier–supplier relationships, to the best of our knowledge, are confined to reports of best practices and analysis of limited cases. To date there have been no studies that systematically validate the performance benefits of co-opetitive supplier–supplier relationships. In this paper, we set out to provide the empirical investigation and hypothesis testing of supplier–supplier co-opetition. As part of an iterative theory-building process (Handfield and Melnyk, 1998), our goal is to evaluate, refine and further develop a theoretical argument of supplier–supplier co-opetition. Using triadic data from a buyer and its suppliers (i.e., buyer–supplier–supplier triads), we examine the theoretical linkage between co-opetitive supplier–supplier relationship and supplier performance and explore the role of the buyer in managing supplier–supplier co-opetition. Fig. 1 illustrates this triadic relational context. Full-size image (4 K) Fig. 1. Buyer–supplier–supplier triad. Figure options This study makes two contributions. First, it validates the emerging conception of supplier–supplier co-opetition. Second, it highlights the role of the buyer in managing supplier–supplier co-opetition and consequently offers guidance to the buyer in managing the relationships between the suppliers. In the following sections, we first introduce the game theoretic argument of co-opetition, as well as the emerging studies of co-opetitive supplier–supplier relationships and the role of buyers in the buyer–supplier–supplier triad. Then, we articulate three hypotheses related to supplier–supplier co-opetition. These three hypotheses can be depicted as the mediating model as shown in Fig. 2. Finally, we report our findings and discuss their practical and theoretical implications. Full-size image (7 K) Fig. 2. A proposed research model of supplier–supplier co-opetition in buyer–supplier–supplier triad.