تشدید کننده ها و الگوهای ابتکارات موفقیت آمیز یکپارچگی در روابط خریدار تامین کننده
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|21264||2014||19 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||16096 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Operations Management, Volume 32, Issues 1–2, January 2014, Pages 15–33
While previous studies have focused on the benefits, risks and outcomes of buy–sell relationships, little is known about the dynamics of these relationships. Our study takes an initial step in this direction by examining how firms develop successful relationships. We review the literature and analyze multiple buyer–supplier relationships to explore developments over time, identify triggers for change, and identify effective management practices for long-term inter-organizational relationships. We employ retrospective data to compare six long-standing buyer–supplier relationships. Our data suggest a recurring pattern of integration initiatives in the evolution towards a successful buy–sell relationship. Specifically, our field data indicate that this pattern starts with initiatives for logistics responsiveness, followed by knowledge exchange initiatives and finally initiatives to increase the use of common resources. Each of these initiatives are triggered by specific opportunities and are emergent in nature. By examining the triggers in the development and maintenance of buy–sell relationships, our study adds to the integration of existing life-cycle frameworks, which increases our understanding of a life-cycle theory for inter-organizational relationships.
A significant body of literature examines the antecedents and the outcomes of inter-organizational relationships (e.g., Schoenherr and Swink, 2012, Villena et al., 2011, Swink et al., 2007, Frohlich and Westbrook, 2001 and Monczka et al., 1998), yet there has been little research regarding the time-phased development of these relationships (Arino and de la Torré, 1998). Since changes in any of the variables of the relationship to the respective partners, whether external or endogenous, do necessarily lead to changes in the efficiency and the quality of the relationship, Arino and de la Torré (1998) call for a better understanding of these time-phased developments. Similarly, Grayson and Ambler (1999, p. 139) note that “the length of the relationship changes the nature of the association between relational constructs” and “the exact nature of these relational dynamics remain elusive”. In fact, the knitting thread of the process of relationships is the series of interactions between partners over time (Ring and Van de Ven, 1994 and Madhok, 1995; Arino and de la Torré, 1998). Moreover, investigating how new buy–sell relationships are born and develop into long-term relationships has been highlighted as a promising research direction (Villena et al., 2011, Lumineau and Henderson, 2012 and Palmatier et al., 2013). This gap was also noted by Lewicki et al. (2006, p. 991), namely, that little attention focuses on “conceptualizing and measuring relationship development over time”. Instead, most research has taken a ‘static, snapshot’ view of relationships and fails to account for the information contained in a relationship's trajectory. While previous research of Dwyer et al. (1987), Ring and Van de Ven (1994) and Jap and Anderson (2007) describes conceptual frameworks for inter-organizational relationship development over time, we investigate how these frameworks fit together. In particular, we want to understand the process of developing a successful buy–sell relationship and the triggers and patterns of integration initiatives on the road towards committed buyer–supplier relationships. We believe that insights in the development of inter-organizational relationships provide managers with valuable information on when to start up new integration initiatives. Managers need to know the conditions, necessary investments and organizational structures that facilitate mature inter-organizational relationships. Moreover, we believe that timing and conditions of these initiatives influence not only performance, but also future developments of the relationships. Providing managers with guidelines on if and when to start up new integration activities will stimulate thoughtful decision making. The overall objective of this paper is to explore the development patterns of inter-organizational relationships, and more specifically of buy–sell relationships by increasing our understanding of how different life-cycle frameworks as described in the literature fit together. Specific objectives include answering three questions. First, how do buy–sell relationships develop over time? Second, which integration initiatives do successful relationships engage in over time? Finally, what triggers new integration initiatives and how does this strengthen the relationship in terms of governance and relationship characteristics? This study makes three contributions to literature. First, it helps to create an integrated framework of inter-organizational relationship development. Second, it links integration initiatives to the life-cycle of inter-organizational relationships, resulting in the description of a clear recurrent pattern of integration initiatives. Third, the study provides insights into the triggers for integration initiatives and the development of relationship characteristics throughout the relationship life-cycle. Since constructing a theory of inter-organizational relationship development requires analysis over time and since we want to answer questions that explain both the ‘how’ and ‘why’, we believe that rich data is the most appropriate way to address this gap. Towards this end, we conducted six case studies of different buy–sell relationship trajectories. In each case study, our unit of analysis was the relationship and not the individual companies, thus we collected paired retrospective data from both the supply and the buy sides of the relationship. The paper begins with a literature review of supply chain integration initiatives. Next, we examine the literature on inter-organizational relationship development. More specifically, we compare the different frameworks in the literature. Third, we describe our case study methodology, including company selection, data gathering protocols and analytical techniques. Next, we analyze the cases from a within and between case perspective. This leads to theoretical propositions and explanations in the discussion part. The paper concludes with a discussion of the limitations and future research opportunities.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
This study makes several contributions to the study of a life-cycle theory for inter-firm relationships. During our literature review and interviews, we have uncovered gaps in knowledge regarding the development patterns of inter-organizational relationships. We developed new insights on how buy–sell relationships develop towards committed relationships and what triggers the different stages of this relationship. We noted a recurring pattern of integration initiatives. The development trajectory starts with logistics responsiveness initiatives. While the expansion stage is characterized by trust building and the expectation of realizing benefits through these joint initiatives, the commitment stage is triggered by interdependence which is expressed by knowledge sharing and resource sharing initiatives. Moreover, the triggers to start up and continue developing new integration initiatives change during the life-cycle of the relationship, as well as the motivations. While at the start of the relationship, partners are mainly motivated by cost reduction factors, later integration initiatives are motivated by service improvement and growth motivations. This is interesting in that it follows the relationship between product and process evolution first noted by Utterback and Abernathy (1975) four decades ago. Namely, that as individual corporations reach the maturity stage of the product life-cycle, there is a need to look for new growth ideas. While perhaps not surprising that supply chain partnerships between two individual organizations should exhibit a similar pattern, our evidence that the commitment stage of a buy–sell relationship involves substantially increased search for growth through innovative initiatives is important. This suggests that mature relationships face the same pressure to innovate and develop new initiatives (or die a slow death) that individual organizations are facing. While this research is largely exploratory and based on a small sample, it is among the few studies that examine the development patterns for successful supply chain relationships with both data from each of the partners and a longitudinal lens. As such, it answers numerous calls for dyadic and time-phased research of this type (e.g., Roh et al., 2012, Villena et al., 2011 and Nyaga et al., 2010).