خرید سر وقت و بدون انبار: مطالعه تجربی از شیوه های عملیاتی، توسعه تامین کننده و عملکرد
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|21296||2000||21 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||10773 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Omega, Volume 28, Issue 6, December 2000, Pages 631–651
This paper examines the role of supplier development in establishing and managing efficient buyer–supplier operational links. The paper develops and assesses a measurement instrument for “operational” and “supplier development” just-in-time purchasing practices, followed by an examination of the relationships between the two sets, and an investigation into whether the use of “operational” and “supplier development” practices has a bearing on higher plant performance. A plant-level survey was carried out on a sample of electronics and machinery plants. The study empirically: • documents the close connection between the buyer–supplier operational link and the buyer’s practices for supplier development; • demonstrates that recourse to supplier development programs and their nature depend on the kind of vendor–vendee operational connection; • test whether different plant performance outcomes result from the implementing of different “operational” and “supplier development” practices. It demonstrates that better-performing plants exhibit more advanced design and logistic links with sources, more formalised vendor-rating and ranking procedures, greater use of organisational devices for supplier-organisational integration and place greater importance on supplier assistance and training.
World-class manufacturing, that is, the “set of processes designed to achieve a suitable global competitive advantage” , places particular emphasis on buyer–supplier interaction practices and on the role of the suppliers in the same extended production system . However, the role of procurements in the effective implementation of modern approaches to operations has been a relatively recent rediscovery. Since the early 1980s studies on just-in-time (JIT) have shown a need to revise traditional supply management practices, in that the JIT system requires rigorous synchronisation of material flow  and . Ever since the 1980s, the interest surrounding effective supplier relationship has grown. Literature on various JIT, total quality management, purchasing, and other operations management fields have dwelled on supplier relations topics such as supplier certification programs, supplier partnership and single sourcing. Within the operations management (OM) studies, a specific stream of research analyses issues concerning JIT buyer–supplier interaction, namely the “JIT purchasing” (JIT-P) stream of contributions. This literature often fails to adequately take into account existing organisation theory (OT) perspectives when exploring the determinants of effective JIT supply relationships. Furthermore, literature on JIT-P abounds in theoretical contributions. However, few studies examine the different JIT-P practices and the sets of practices on the basis of empirical surveys and statistical analyses . In this paper, the authors focus on the supplier development actions set in motion by the buyer, perhaps the most crucial purchasing activity. In fact, the basic objective of the function is to secure supply sources that provide an uninterrupted flow of required materials at a reasonable cost. First, this involves selecting competent suppliers, and then working with them to upgrade their capabilities. A supplier development program can be defined as a systematic organisational effort to create and maintain a network of competent suppliers ,  and . The importance of supplier development becomes even more critical when implementing JIT sourcing programs: JIT creates a demand for increased certainty in supply, in addition to other concessions from suppliers such as improved conformance quality, higher frequency of deliveries and a more customised supply service. In this context, characterised by the presence of specific investments and contractual incompleteness, the organisation theory and the transaction cost economy (TCE) perspective suggest that “relational contracting” ,  and  is the appropriate governance form of the buyer–supplier exchange. Supplier development practices represent an essential aspect of the “relational” exchange. The “relational (exchange) approach”, unlike the “arm’s length” approach, calls for continuous monitoring, assistance, incentives and integration of the pool of suppliers. On the basis of an empirical research, the study: • develops and assesses an instrument for measuring “operational” and “supplier development” JIT-purchasing practices; • analyses the relationships between the two sets of practices, using both OM and OT perspectives; • compares the use of “operational” and “supplier development” practices in high and low-performing plants, outlining which practices lead to successful JIT implementation. In summary, this paper explores some key issues concerning the selection of a pool of suppliers integrated into a common design or production chain. Although several other authors have already faced this topic, few studies have carried out a detailed and empirical examination of the crucial relationships between buyer–supplier operational interactions and supplier development activities. The paper shows which aspects of supplier development are important for successful JIT implementation, findings which can also serve as a guide for practising managers.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
On the basis of an empirical research, this study has analysed the relationships between “operational”, “supplier development” JIT-P practices and plant performances. The results obtained can be summarised as follows: • An instrument capable of measuring the two sets of JIT-P practices has been developed and assessed; • The study empirically documents that the various “operational” JIT-P practices considered show three underlying factors: “quality link”, “logistic link” and “design link”. Each of these factors can be interpreted as manifesting a distinct type of interaction. • The study demonstrates the connection existing between the “operational” and the “supplier development” practices of the buyer. This connection depends on the type of operational interaction. The “quality link” is accompanied by the use of formalised tools for supplier monitoring. The “logistic link” is correlated to supplier assistance initiatives and to organisational devices for supplier integration. The “design link”, being significantly connected with three of the four practices examined (“contractual incentives”, “supplier assistance and training”, “organisational integration devices”), seems to be the most important factor in triggering the supplier development actions set in motion by the buyer firm. • It has been shown that better-performing plants make more use of the JIT-P practices examined. Plants classified according to performances can be explained in terms of their operational link with sources (the “quality link” dimension being the only exception) along with actions aimed at developing a pool of suppliers (the “contractual incentives” practice being the only exception). This result highlights the importance of “supplier development” and “operational” JIT-P practices for overall plant performance. In conclusion, it is worth remembering that this study involved only two sectors in one country. The results of the study need to be verified in other sectors and countries, where the problematics and dynamics of the buyer–supplier relationships may be significantly different. It should also be remembered that each company exhibits its own specificity in terms of the operating system, nature of the processes, level of decomposability of productive tasks, and technological features, making the various forms of interaction with suppliers diversely critical. In any case, the study offers precise indications on which practices are more likely to lead to good performances.