مشخصات فنی و توسعه تامین کننده در صنعت انتقال و توزیع برق انگلستان
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|21299||2006||15 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||محاسبه نشده|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : International Journal of Production Economics, Volume 104, Issue 1, November 2006, Pages 164–178
Specifications have a large impact upon capital and operating costs because they are formulated early in the design process. Models of the specification process have been developed for the automotive industry. These models have many shortcomings and have limited application in other sectors. This paper examines the development and use of specifications relating to customised plant for the electricity supply industry. Two case studies are presented that examine the specification process at the National Grid Company (NGC) and SupplierCo, one of its strategic suppliers. Functional models are developed to explore the application and use of specifications. Previous research suggests that there is a choice between functional or technical specifications. This research found that functional specifications were used for each contract, but these were applied within a detailed framework of technical specifications. NGC has developed a supplier development programme that aims to improve the capability of its supply chains within its framework of specifications. NGC's use of specifications enables it to effectively meet the requirements of The Office of Gas and Electricity Markets (OFGEM) and its shareholders.
In the management of major projects one of the principal objectives of the contract strategy is to minimise technical and commercial risk. The customer needs to be confident that the supplier has the necessary capabilities to satisfy the terms and conditions of the contract. The cost to the client of failure by the contractor may be many times greater than any compensation that could be recovered through legal action. A contract requires safeguards and incentives that protect the interests of both the client and the supplier. The specification plays an important role in reconciling these conflicting interests. Each piece of plant that is the subject of a tender and eventually a contract requires its own specification to complement the conditions of the contract. Specifications are written for two main purposes: (i) to state the requirements concerning the performance and technical attributes of a product; (ii) to give guidance on the process of making and using a product (BS7373, 1998). The specification may contain the technical requirements, project management, quality assurance and process requirements, performance standards, contract conditions, and commercial aspects of the contract. An understanding of the specification process is important for management in terms of managing product development, integrating knowledge, controlling costs and lead-times, and meeting customer requirements. Despite its importance, research into specification management has largely been neglected. The limited research that has been conducted to-date has focused largely on the high-volume automotive industry. Little research, however, has been conducted into the management of specifications in the low-volume capital goods sector. Capital goods companies produce high-value products that are used in industry to produce other products. Examples include boilers, turbines and switchgear for the electricity supply industry. Individual products are generally highly customised to meet individual customer requirements. The design content per order is usually high. This makes specifications particularly important because product requirements are contract and customer specific. The purpose of this paper is to explore the application of specifications in the UK electrical transmission and distribution equipment industry. The work is based upon case studies at the National Grid Company and SupplierCo, one of its strategic suppliers. The objectives of this paper are to: • describe and define various types of specification; • review models of the specification process; • investigate the relationship between specifications, supply chain management and supplier development in the electricity supply industry; • model the internal processes involving to the use of specifications by SupplierCo, a company that supplies switchgear to the National Grid Company. The next section begins by describing and defining different types of specification. Various models of the specification process are then explored. These are mainly concerned with the high-volume automotive sector. Specifications are then considered within the context of supply chain management and supplier development initiatives. Section three describes the research methodology. The use of the Structured Systems Analysis and Design Methodology (SSADM) is outlined. 4 and 5 describe in-depth case studies that were conducted at the National Grid Company (NGC) and SupplierCo, one of its strategic suppliers. These are followed by discussions and conclusions.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
The literature makes a distinction between product (technical) specifications and performance (functional) specifications. It has been argued that performance specifications allow suppliers to develop their own designs, introduce innovation and reduce costs (Kumpe and Bolwijn, 1988). In the capital goods industry, detailed product specifications reduce the design choices available to the supplier. This may constrain innovation and result in unnecessary design and procurement activities, which increases cost and lead-time (McGovern et al., 1999; Hicks et al., 2000). Outsourcing, if not carefully managed can lead to a ‘hollowing out’ of the company through loss of ‘architectural knowledge’ (Venkatesan, 1992). NGC is moving towards the use of performance specifications for ‘applications’ such as new substations. However, the supplier is also required to work within a comprehensive framework of detailed product specifications (NGTS), which apply to all components and systems. This constrains the ability of suppliers to develop their own designs, limits the introduction of innovation and provides a mechanism that gives NGC effective control over its supply chains. NGC has substantial knowledge relating to product design, construction, operations, maintenance, retrofit and decommissioning. The integration of this knowledge is NGC's core competence (Prahalad and Hamel, 1990). NGC seeks to maintain and develop its technical expertise rather than capture it from suppliers. The supplier development programme controls costs and encourages suppliers to maintain and develop their capabilities. It also promotes competition between suppliers. NGC's supplier development initiative is strategic as its aim is to improve the capability of the supply base. This research investigated the product development process in SupplierCo, one of NGC's strategic suppliers. NGC's supply strategy had encouraged SupplierCo to restructure its business from a functional organisation to a customer-focused, project-based company. Senior Engineers became responsible for all aspects of a project and liaised with NGC and suppliers. The Structured Systems Analysis and Design Methodology models showed the structure of the business processes, the associated information flows, data storage and the role of the Senior Engineer during the tendering and contract execution stages. Senior Engineers were responsible for the business processes and coordination with suppliers and customers. The models showed that the understanding, management and use of specifications were core components of both these stages. Specifications influence the power balance between customers and suppliers. They are used by the customer to manage risk. Specifications also determine the scope for suppliers to innovate. As specifications are developed early in the design process, they have a large influence on performance, capital and operating costs. Over specification may lead to excessive capital costs, whilst under specification may lead to poor performance that potentially increases operating costs and exposes the customer to excessive risk. The content and context of specifications may be determined by the knowledge base and technical competence of the customer and its suppliers. Specifications are a strategic issue because of these factors.