مطالعه چند موردی از پیاده سازی یک رویکرد یکپارچه جهت ایمنی در شرکت های کوچک
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|21410||2013||9 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||8123 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Safety Science, Available online 5 December 2013
An integrative approach to managing safety has been proposed which is based on a combination of the behavior change and culture change approach to safety. The key features are a data-based and participatory problem-solving process and an explicit culture change process. Objective: The aim of the current study was to operationalize and test the implementation of an integrative approach to safety in small (20–49 employees) enterprises within the metal and wood processing industries using a quasi-experimental, multi-case design with two intervention (Int1 and Int2) and two control enterprises Methods: Baseline measures included safety observations, questionnaires, interviews and inspection of machine safety. The intervention consisted of workshops where the safety organization, workers and supervisors discussed safety issues identified at baseline (the problem solving process), and a workshop on safety management and leadership, followed by several individual safety coaching sessions with supervisors (the culture change process). Results: The results differed between the two intervention enterprises. In Int1 supervisors performed 80% of the activities planned in the coaching sessions, and 74% of the activities from the worker workshops, and 82% of the activities from the safety organization workshop were resolved, compared to only 48%, 59% and 20% respectively in Int2. Interviews with management and workers indicated a difference in management commitment to the process in the enterprises, and a lack of trust and perceived reciprocity between workers and supervisors in Int2. The effect measures showed improved safety leadership, safety knowledge, safety involvement and machine safety in Int1 at follow-up, and no improvements in Int2, as was also the case for the two control enterprises. The results show that it is possible to implement the approach successfully in small enterprises, although further and lengthier studies are needed to link the approach to culture change. It is crucial to ensure management commitment throughout the implementation.
DeJoy (2005) has proposed an integrative approach to safety management based on a combination of the culture-based and behavior-based approach to safety. These two approaches have been shown to be among the most effective in attaining injury reduction (Lund and Aarø, 2004 and Guastello, 1993), and current evidence points to the combination of different injury prevention approaches as the most successful strategy (Hale et al., 2010). DeJoy (2005) argues that the culture and behavior-based approach to safety management are largely complementary, where the data-driven bottom-up approach from behavior-based safety can be integrated with the intuitive top-down approach from the culture change tradition. The key feature of this integrative approach is a data-based and participatory problem-solving process, combined with an explicit culture change process. The objective of this paper is to report on a study that operationalized and tested DeJoy’s integrative approach to safety management in small (20–49 employees) metal and wood processing enterprises in Denmark. This is important as there is a lack of development, and systematic implementation and evaluation of safety management systems for small enterprises (Hasle and Limborg, 2006). Small enterprises pose a special challenge in this regard, as they have limited resources, and lack formalization of safety management. Furthermore, safety issues are often dealt with on an ad hoc and informal basis, without any written safety policies or procedures (Hasle et al., 2009). There is often a tendency for small enterprises to ignore or downplay the contributing causes to injuries, and therefore fail to follow up with safety initiatives. It is critical that safety management initiatives targeted towards small enterprises are straightforward, short, clear, related to tangible tasks, and easily adaptable to existing organizational structures. Moreover, even though many studies emphasize worker involvement in safety programs, only few studies include this aspect (Hasle et al., 2012).
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
This study was the first operationalization and implementation of DeJoy’s (2005) integrated approach to safety management. The results show that it is possible to implement the approach successfully in small enterprises, however, further studies are needed to link the approach to culture change, and it is crucial to ensure management commitment throughout the implementation.