بررسی برخوردهای فناوری خود خدمات: توسعه و اعتبار سنجی مقیاس SSTQUAL
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|21532||2011||13 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||8309 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Retailing, Volume 87, Issue 2, June 2011, Pages 194–206
Self-service technologies (SSTs) have enhanced the role technology plays in customer interactions with firms, yet instruments that systematically measure the service quality of SSTs from the perspective of customers remain underdeveloped. Based on psychometric scale development approaches, this study conceptualized, constructed, refined, and tested a multiple-item scale that examined key factors influencing SST service quality. Through qualitative and quantitative studies in four separate phases, a 20-item seven-dimension SSTQUAL scale was developed that includes functionality, enjoyment, security, assurance, design, convenience, and customization. The scale demonstrates sound psychometric properties based on findings from various reliability and validity tests as well as vigorous scale replications across industries and consumer traits using several different samples. The utility of the proposed scale is discussed for implications, limitations and future research.
Consumers’ experiences with service firms range from full service delivered by service personnel to self-service co-produced by customers. Rising labor costs have encouraged companies to explore more self-service options that allow customers to perform services for themselves. Information technology advancement has further enhanced self-service delivery and revolutionized the service landscape, allowing companies to use a variety of self-service technologies (SSTs) that increase customer participation. From bank transactions to supermarket self-checkouts, service providers are now employing a wide range of SSTs that engage customers in service co-production electronically in lieu of interaction with service employees. SSTs are “technological interfaces that enable customers to produce a service independent of direct service employee involvement” (Meuter et al. 2000, p. 50). The types of SSTs currently employed by firms include kiosks, Internet, interactive voice response, and mobile services (Castro et al., 2010, Meuter et al., 2000, NCR, 2008 and NCR, 2009). As consumers have grown more comfortable using technology in recent years, the demand for SSTs has risen tremendously (NCR 2009). Prior research indicates that, through customer involvement in service co-production, SSTs can lower labor costs, enhance efficiency, improve productivity, and increase corporate performance (Bitner et al., 2010 and Dabholkar, 1996). Customers enjoy services with increased independence and freedom from time/space constraints through more channels (Meuter et al., 2000 and Oliver et al., 2009). Within the context of technological innovation, such customer co-production and value co-creation through SSTs are expected to become a key criterion for long-term business success (Bolton, Grewal, and Levy 2007). With the growth of multi-channel marketing (Grewal and Levy 2009), companies are providing a combination of SST channels for seamless customer service delivery (NCR, 2008, NCR, 2009 and Retail Merchandiser, 2009). For example, airline customers can reserve and pay for tickets online, check-in through the Internet or mobile phones, pick up boarding passes at airport kiosks, and receive flight updates on mobile devices. Banks offer services through Internet, interactive phone systems, ATMs, and mobile channels. Healthcare providers enable patients to schedule appointments and fill out paper work online, check in and validate insurance information via portable tablets in the doctor's office, and receive information via mobile devices. Consumers have valued the ability of service providers to offer multiple SST channels for anywhere/anytime convenience (NCR 2008). Nevertheless, existing technology-based service quality measurement research is limited solely to the Internet. Instruments that systematically measure service quality of SSTs as a whole still remain underdeveloped (Verhoef et al. 2009). As the integrated SSTs differ in the mode of communication from traditional human-interaction-based and virtual-Internet-based services (Hoffman, 2003, Murphy, 2008 and Sousa and Voss, 2006), a strong need, therefore, exists for both researchers and practitioners to examine customer expectations of SST service quality in the emerging context. This study aims to fill this important research gap by developing a psychometrically sound instrument, SSTQUAL, for customer–technology interaction based service quality measurement across contexts. To enhance generalizability, we further replicated the scale across industries and consumer traits. In the remainder of this paper, we first discuss theoretical background of technology-based service quality. Second, we present a qualitative investigation that produces an initial pool of scale items. Third, the scale is refined through substantive and empirical considerations, increasing confidence in the factor structure. Fourth, we present various reliability and validity tests as well as replications across industries and consumer traits with new samples. This article concludes with a discussion of the implications and applications of the scale.