اهرم های دانش ضمنی در اتحاد : اهمیت استفاده از قابلیت های رابطه ای برای ساخت و نفوذ سرمایه رابطه ای
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|21584||2006||21 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||10590 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Engineering and Technology Management, Volume 23, Issue 3, September 2006, Pages 147–167
Effectively managing existing tacit knowledge stocks and transferring knowledge between partners contributes to firm capabilities that allow them to differentiate their goods and services from those of their competitors. Because it also helps them to provide greater value to customers, it contributes to the development of a competitive advantage. In highly competitive industries, firms need to focus on proactively managing their knowledge resources to ensure survival. However, the knowledge management process is at times complex especially because of the difficulty involved in conveying tacit knowledge. Due to its latent potential for enabling firms to achieve potential competitive advantage, how firms utilize and transfer stocks of tacit knowledge requires enhanced understanding. In specific, we explain how firms use relational capabilities to build relational capital with partners. In turn, relational capital facilitates the transfer of tacit knowledge between collaborating partners. We develop several propositions regarding the factors likely to influence the transfer of a firm's tacit knowledge resources in strategic alliances. The importance of social capital's relational dimension, relational capital, in this process is highlighted.
A critical challenge for most firms regardless of their age, size or industry is how to achieve and sustain competitive advantage. Regardless of economic conditions, competitive dynamics or the current state of technology, firms can meet this challenge by managing their knowledge repertoires; to do so effectively requires that they focus on building and diffusing knowledge. Knowledge transfers within the firm and between partner firms have become increasingly important with increasing globalization and competition based on knowledge. Although knowledge transfer within the firm and between firms is now one of the most basic functions performed by all companies, successful transfer remains a significant challenge about which we require a greater understanding. Social capital can enhance firms’ knowledge transfer processes thereby increasing the success of such transfers. In particular, social capital-based relational capabilities complement the capability to effectively transfer tacit knowledge stocks. Such a combination of capabilities has noteworthy potential for contributing to a competitive advantage. Therefore, we emphasize the importance of relational capital for transferring tacit knowledge in strategic alliances. The purpose of this work is two-fold. First, it focuses on tacit knowledge as a potential advantage-creating resource in increasingly competitive knowledge-based environments. Second, it responds to Kostova and Roth's (2003) call for greater clarity regarding social capital's potential to influence firm-level strategic actions and outcomes. Managing knowledge stocks are a foremost task facing firms in a knowledge-driven economy. Given the potential of tacit knowledge to aid in the creation of firm-level competitive advantage, we examine the link between relational capabilities (relational capital) and tacit knowledge transfer. The transfer of explicit knowledge is obviously important for knowledge-based firms, but even greater latent value is often found in managing tacit knowledge resources. Firms that recognize the challenges to transferring tacit knowledge must take steps to alleviate the hurdles to effective transfer. By doing so, they can develop expertise in knowledge transfer, develop a source of competitive advantage and ultimately improve the organization's performance. Whereas existing research suggests that knowledge transfer is facilitated by repeated interaction among partnering firms (Lane and Lubatkin, 1998 and Zahra et al., 2000), we explore the need for firms to recognize the importance of inter-personal dynamics involved in the transfer of tacit knowledge. Building relational capital involves development of trust, information sharing and joint problem solving (Uzzi, 1997). The inherently complex process of transferring tacit knowledge requires greater attention to the relational dimension of social capital than does transferring other forms of knowledge. In particular, tacit knowledge transfer requires greater trust between partners than does explicit knowledge transfer. In contexts where partner firms face the additional challenge of cultural dissimilarity, and partners lack a common understanding of non-explicit information, an even greater emphasis on the development of trust is necessary in order to promote information sharing and joint problem solving (Hitt et al., 2006). In the following section we briefly highlight the importance of leveraging tacit knowledge stocks in the development of competitive advantage within the context of strategic alliances. This is followed by a concise review of existing research distinguishing explicit and tacit knowledge. We subsequently relate the discussion of tacit knowledge to inter-firm collaborations, an increasingly common strategy among firms. We also provide a detailed discussion of social capital and its relational dimension, relational capital, and their potential value to enhance the ability of firms to effectively utilize tacit knowledge stocks within firm-to-firm partnerships. We augment our arguments with several cases that illustrate the challenges of effectively utilizing tacit knowledge within partnerships and potential approaches for overcoming these challenges.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Whether the focus is on movie crews, sports teams, hospitals, banks, grocery stores or any private organization, the need for effective knowledge transfer is important. In fact, Kogut and Zander (1993, 1996) emphasized that firms are social communities that specialize in the transfer of tacit and idiosyncratic knowledge. Due to its idiosyncratic nature, tacit knowledge has greater potential to create a distinctive competitive position than does explicit knowledge (Martin and Salomon, 2003). In changing competitive environments, the ability to recognize, acquire and successfully assimilate external knowledge with the firm’s existing knowledge is especially valuable. Developing the capability to learn from sources external to the firm is highly important in building new capabilities and to long-term firm success (Teece et al., 1997). As highlighted by the successful Tesco/Safeway partnership, firms that develop a capability to build and leverage relational capital to facilitate the flow of tacit knowledge between partners are likely to be especially well-positioned in an increasingly knowledge-based global economy. As previously noted, an essential challenge facing all firms is how to achieve and sustain competitive advantage vis-a`-vis its competitors. Firms can effectively meet this challenge by focusing on the development and maintenance of a superior knowledge transfer capability. In particular, relational capital is a resource that can be leveraged to enhance knowledge transfer processes. Due to an increasingly competitive environment, transferring tacit knowledge has become even more valuable.Whenever knowledge transfer crosses two or more cultures, achieving and sustaining a competitive advantage based on knowledge is often challenging. However, firms that develop a superior capability for acquiring external tacit knowledge or transferring its current tacit knowledge across internal units are likely to achieve an advantage over competitors. The importance of knowledge transfer within the firm and between partner firms has grown with increasing globalization and competition based on knowledge. It is crucial that organizations not take for granted the process of transferring knowledge between business units and partner firms. Firms that recognize the challenges inherent in transferring tacit knowledge must take steps to alleviate the hurdles to effective transfer. By doing so, they can develop expertise in knowledge transfer, improve the organization’s performance and ultimately develop a source of sustained competitive advantage. The highly complex process of transferring tacit knowledge requires greater trust between partners than does transferring explicit knowledge. In addition, tacit knowledge transfer requires greater attention to the relational dimension of social capital than does explicit knowledge transfer. Each of the cases examined herein point to the complexities involved in transferring tacit knowledge between business units and/or firms. Frequent communications, on-site meetings and partner visits are necessary to build relational capital and are particularly valuable tools in such knowledge transfer efforts. From online grocery stores to auto manufacturers to banking back office services, effectively transferring tacit knowledge plays an important role in helping firms achieve their performance goals. The approach to between-firm collaboration taken by Proteome Systems is typical of the challenge facing many companies in knowledge-intensive industries. The partnership between Tesco and Safeway in the online grocery business demonstrates that successful knowledge transfer can lead to significant positive outcomes and competitive advantage for partnering firms. The example provided by movie interns highlights the importance of learn-by-observing and learn-by-doing for individuals directly involved in utilizing tacit knowledge. Further, Viewpointe Archive’s emphasis on the relational capital is a direct response to the challenge of successfully transferring nuanced and difficult-to-articulate tacit knowledge. Viewpointe has become the nation’s largest image archive firm in large part because of its successful relationships with customers, partners and suppliers, and its capability to leverage the knowledge gained via these relationships. NedCar faced the additional challenge of having its primary knowledge transfer partners from vastly different cultures. Such challenges are not insurmountable, but they can be daunting. The development of trust and leveraging resulting relational capital are vitally important for both Viewpointe and NedCar. These cases provide conceptual support for the notion that having a connection between firms does not ensure that the desired transfer of knowledge will occur. Only firms that build and leverage their relational capital with their partners are likely to be successful in their knowledge transfer initiatives. This work explains the importance of building relational capital and its role in transferring knowledge in strategic alliances. It is more challenging and yet even more important to develop relational capital in cross-border collaborations in order to facilitate transfer of tacit knowledge. The case examples presented provided supportive evidence of the importance of relational capital and the criticality of transferring tacit knowledge to the success of alliances and to individual partner firm performance. Thus, it supports the arguments that relational capital contributes to the execution of firm strategy (e.g., engaging in alliances and entering foreign markets) and to firm performance (Hitt et al., 2006).