پویایی بین ارزش کار و تجربه کار پاره وقت در سراسر سال مقطع متوسطه
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|21667||2008||16 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||محاسبه نشده|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Vocational Behavior, Volume 73, Issue 1, August 2008, Pages 143–158
The work value system, its development, and its relationship with work experiences can be modeled as an adaptive control system [Ford, D. H., & Lerner, R. M. (1992). Developmental systems theory: An integrative approach. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications]. This study employed longitudinal data from 1000 participants (Youth Development Study; Jeylan Mortimer, Principal Investigator) and three work value domains to test the assertion that work values and experiences change in concert from the 9th to 12th grade. The results suggest that work values and experiences exhibit cohesion and discrepancy reduction patterns which serve to maintain a dynamic link within the work value system and between the value system and part-time work experiences across the high school years. Envisioning a future career seemingly has a greater influence on adolescent vocational development than do part-time work experiences.
Work values regulate and evaluate thoughts, behavior, and events associated with work and they are thought to be organized into a system (Brown and Crace, 1996 and Porfeli and Vondracek, 2007). A work value system is composed of some number of work values and the structure of the system is defined by the relationships between the constituent work values. Much work has been done to identify the essential work values within the work value system and how the system is structured (Pryor, 1982, Super, 1995 and Super and Hendrix, 1968). Over the past century, several models depicting the composition of the value system have emerged (Allport and Vernon, 1931, Kluckhohn, 1951, Schwartz and Bilsky, 1987, Super, 1962 and Super and Sverko, 1995). A great deal of work has been conducted to establish the existence and assess the impact of the value system on human functioning (Feather, 1990, Kilby, 1993, Kluckhohn, 1951, Rokeach, 1973 and Schwartz and Bilsky, 1987) and particularly work behavior (Brown, 1995, Brown, 1996, Brown and Crace, 1996, Johnson, 2000, Johnson, 2001a, Johnson, 2001b, Johnson, 2002, Mortimer and Lorence, 1979, Super, 1957, Super, 1990, Super, 1992 and Super, 1995) and to affirm that human development is partly defined in terms of value system development (Kluckhohn, 1951 and Rokeach, 1973). This literature suggests that values and behavior mutually influence one another, yet little work has been conducted to determine how the value system develops over time. Recent research has begun to hypothesize and test patterns of value stability and change reflective of a dynamic system regulating and evaluating thoughts, behavior, and events pertaining to work and career (Porfeli, 2007). This research suggests that adolescents exhibit predicted processes of change and stability that are presumably governed by a dissonance mechanism, which ultimately serves to promote value system development and maintain harmony within the value system (Porfeli, 2007). The present study extends this previous work by testing whether a dissonance mechanism, consisting of these processes of cohesion and discrepancy reduction, govern the relationships between work values and part-time work experiences during the adolescent years. Part-time work is a ubiquitous experience of adolescents in the US and research suggests that it may be an important context for vocational development and the formation of work values. While one body of research suggests that part-time work during adolescence is associated with dysfunctional behaviors (e.g., Bachman and Schulenberg, 1993, Mortimer et al., 1992a, Paschall et al., 2002, Steinberg and Avenevoli, 1998 and Wu et al., 2003), other research points to functional outcomes like the formation of work values associated with central work tasks (Skorikov & Vondracek, 1997), personal responsibility, and the development of social skills (Kablaoui & Pautler, 1991). Part-time work may even serve as a “steeling” context that prepares adolescents for the normative work distress experienced during young adulthood (Mortimer & Staff, 2004). Part-time work appears to have a meaningful impact on adolescent outcomes and the present study will add to this literature by examining the relationships between part-time work experiences and related value system development during the high school years. 1.1. A work value system concept model Values presumably serve as durable references evaluating and directing behavioral tendencies and plans, but values do not necessarily dictate any particular action or choice during any particular moment (Boldero and Francis, 2002, Feather, 1992, Kluckhohn, 1951 and Rokeach, 1973). Previous conceptual models of the value system aimed to classify values into mutually exclusive categories such as Rokeach’s (1973) terminal versus instrumental values categories. In contrast, Boldero and Francis (2002) suggested that each value may be employed in both a standard- and goal-oriented fashion. Standard-oriented applications of the value system deal with what a person prefers to be and from this perspective values are engaged in the management and direction of ongoing experiences, while goal-oriented manifestations of the value system reflect what a person wishes to become and thus values are seen as being principally engaged with behavior directed toward anticipated future experiences and outcomes. Accordingly, a value is not necessarily either terminal or instrumental; rather, each value may be employed as a standard and/or a goal influencing behavior. 1.2. Patterns of change maintaining within-person and person-within-context harmony The connection between values and present-oriented behavior is conceptually rooted in dissonance theory (Festinger, 1957) and cybernetic models akin to an adaptive control system (Ford & Lerner, 1992), suggesting that values influence behaviors and experience in a reciprocal fashion across time (Boldero & Francis, 2002). Value system development is presumably indicated by increasing harmony between standard- and goal-oriented manifestations of a value and between the value system and experience. When values are applied as a standard, then Boldero and Francis (2002, p. 233) predict that discrepancies between what a person prefers to be (the standard) and what a person actually is will yield a “negative psychological state,” presumably similar to Festinger’s (1957) cognitive dissonance. This will in turn prompt behavior or value change to reduce the discrepancy and the negative psychological state associated with the discrepancy. On the contrary, Boldero and Francis (2002) predict that the discrepancy between the goal-oriented value and the current situation will not necessarily yield a negative psychological state. Goal-setting is generally associated with positive affect and often involves the act of invoking a discrepancy between one’s current and desired state. Continued positive affect hinges on the rate of progress toward the established goal rather than the discrepancy between a value and the corresponding behavior. Therefore, the rate of progress toward a goal influences positive affect, which in turn influences goal-oriented value and/or behavior change over time. Given the theoretically predicted differences in the relationships between experiences and standard- versus goal-oriented values, part-time work experiences are predicted to be principally related to standard-oriented part-time work values and to be associated with goal-oriented values in an indirect or mediated fashion. Standard-oriented part-time work values are therefore predicted to mediate the relationship between part-time work experiences and goal-oriented career-related work values (see Fig. 1). Previous research suggests that harmony or an absence of dissonance within the work value system can be maintained through interacting discrepancy reduction and cohesion processes of change across time ( Porfeli, 2004 and Porfeli and Vondracek, 2007). The cohesion process is reflected by the salience of two values moving together across time. As a value increases, decreases, or remains constant, so should other associated values. When two values exhibit a notable discrepancy, then a discrepancy reduction process of change is necessary to reduce the discrepancy before a cohesion process can be employed to maintain the reduction. The discrepancy reduction process can be reflected in an increase or decrease in one or both values to achieve convergence. In this study, the same predictions are made concerning the relationships between work values and experiences. For example, a person may place a strong value on income and determine that his or her income is presently insufficient. To resolve this discrepancy, a person may seek more income, devalue income, or do both over time. During the following period of discrepancy reduction, income may increase, the value of income may decrease, or both changes could occur to reduce the difference between the two and thereby reduce the dissonance associated with the difference between one’s income and how one values income. Under the condition of a large discrepancy between a value and an analogous experience, the cohesion relationship is negative (value decreases and experience increases) and leads to discrepancy reduction, and under the condition of a small discrepancy, the cohesion relationship is positive, values and experiences move in the same direction and this leads to the maintenance of small discrepancies. While the cohesion process predicts a positive correlation in the change patterns, the discrepancy reduction process predicts an inverse or negative correlation between the changes in values and behaviors over time. 1.3. The present study The present study examined the longitudinal link between part-time work experiences and work values during the high school years. Previous research (Johnson, 2001a and Johnson, 2002) examined the theoretical assertions that people select work experiences that reinforce their work values (Mortimer & Lorence, 1979) and that work environments affect relevant features of the personality, including work values (Kohn and Schooler, 1973 and Kohn and Schooler, 1983). This research suggests that work experiences and values are linked together across time and that earlier work experiences appear to have a greater impact on work values than vice versa. To extend previous research, the present study examined whether the discrepancy reduction and cohesion processes operate in value system development as it relates to part-time work experiences during the high school years. Fig. 1 depicts in path-modeling terms the nature of the discrepancy reduction and cohesion moderator model within the value system (gray portion) and between the value system and experience (the point of intersection between the gray and dotted portions). The solid arrows reflect direct and stronger relationships while the dashed arrows reflect potentially mediated and weaker relationships. The present study tested the following three hypotheses across three work value/experience domains: 1. The cohesion and discrepancy processes of change operate in an interactive fashion to maintain person-within-context harmony over time. Specifically, these processes interact in a fashion that serves to reduce large discrepancies and preserve small discrepancies between standard-oriented values and part-time work experiences. 2. The link between standard-oriented work values and part-time work experiences is stronger than the link between goal-oriented work values and experiences. 3. Standard-oriented work values mediate the relationship between part-time work experiences and goal-oriented work values.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
The results of this study affirm the notion that part-time work experiences and values are linked during the high school years through a dissonance mechanism. Specifically, part-time work experiences are engaged in a reciprocal relationship with work values pertaining to part-time work (i.e., standard-oriented), which are in turn engaged in a relationship with full-time work values (i.e., goal-oriented values). Furthermore, discrepant work values and experiences converge over time. The dissonance mechanism is reflected though discrepancy reduction and cohesion processes that actively bind work values and experiences and yield greater harmony between the working adolescent and their part-time work context in a way that is akin to a cybernetic model. When the discrepancy reduction mechanism within the value system and between the value system and experience were compared, both discrepancies independently influenced the change in standard-oriented work values. The results also suggest that discrepancy reduction and cohesion mechanisms appear to be more active within the value system than between the value system and work experiences during the high school years. 5.1. The interrelationships between work values and part-time work experiences With the exception of the economic security domain, the theoretical model suggesting that standard-oriented work values mediate the relationship between goal-oriented work values and present-oriented work experiences was supported by the results in the present study. Comparing the magnitude of the cohesion estimates (e.g., correlations in Table 4) between part-time work experiences and goal- and standard-oriented values, suggests that present part-time work experiences and standard-oriented values exhibit stronger cohesion than do work experiences and goal-oriented values. This set of findings is consistent with Fig. 1 and Fig. 3 and supports a fundamental proposition of the model. The link between present work experience and goal-oriented values is indirect and possibly mediated by standard-oriented values. Subsequent statistical tests within the mastery and interpersonal domains also supported the proposition that standard-oriented values mediate the relationship between goal-oriented work values and present work experiences. 5.2. Cohesion and discrepancy reduction mechanisms promoting person-within-context harmony The results suggest that cohesion and discrepancy reduction processes interact to promote person-within-context harmony. The discrepancy reduction mechanism, cast into developmental terms, leads to the prediction that discrepancies between work experience and values at the sample level should decrease over the high school years because person-in-context harmony is the preferred state within an adaptive and self-constructing living system (Ford, 1987). Although the results yielded some aberrations, the prevailing pattern of findings suggests that larger discrepancies at an earlier occasion predicted smaller discrepancies at a later occasion (see Fig. 3). These findings, therefore, support the proposition that discrepancy reduction is an active and influential mechanism promoting integration of the person-in-context unit of analysis. In contrast to the discrepancy between standard-oriented values and present-oriented behaviors and between standard- and goal-oriented values tested here, Boldero and Francis (2002) assert that the discrepancy between goal-oriented values and behaviors/experiences directed toward those values does not necessarily induce dissonance and may in fact prompt positive affect. Goal-setting is, by definition, a discrepancy inducing process because a goal is a desired end state that presently does not exist. When a goal is set a discrepancy is created and this discrepancy does not necessarily induce dissonance and generally yields positive affect. Ongoing positive affect is predicted to be tied to the rate of progress toward a goal; therefore rate of progress rather than the discrepancy between the present and goal states may be the essential predictor of goal-oriented value and future-oriented behavior change. Future research could focus on examining the mechanisms binding adolescents’ career planning behaviors and their goal-oriented work values to ascertain whether rate of progress toward a goal-oriented work value or the absolute difference between the work value and future-oriented behavior is the best predictor of value and behavior change over time. 5.3. The influence of part-time work and goal-oriented values on standard-oriented values The relative influence of discrepancies within the value system and between the value system and work experience were assessed to determine which discrepancy had the greater independent impact on the change in standard-oriented values over time. Previous research found that the discrepancy reduction mechanism yielded greater harmony between standard- and goal-oriented values across the high school years (Porfeli, 2007), but this research did not contrast the influence of this mechanism against the same discrepancy reduction mechanism binding standard-oriented work values and commensurate part-time work experiences. Moreover, research suggests that work experiences appear to have a greater impact on work values than vice versa (Johnson, 2001a and Johnson, 2002). The present study examined to what extent work values and work behaviors/experiences are linked and the extent to which part-time work values are linked to full-time work values and part-time work experiences. The results (see Fig. 3 and Table 6) suggest that the work value system is engaged with work experiences over time. The discrepancy reduction and cohesion processes appear to be more active within the value system than between part-time work experiences and standard-oriented part-time work values, but the mechanisms do influence the latter albeit in a weak fashion. The interactive influences of the discrepancy reduction and cohesion processes appear to be most powerful within the interpersonal domain because this domain exhibited the smallest discrepancies during the third year when the 9th to 11th (not tabled) and 10th to 12th grade intervals were examined visually and the betas tied to the interaction terms and the R2 presented in Table 5 were much stronger for the interpersonal domain relative to the other two domains. The results from the present study speak to previous findings ( Johnson, 2001a) by suggesting that goal-oriented work values have a greater impact on standard-oriented values than do work experiences. The sum of these findings suggests that adolescent role transitions may have an impact on developmental processes (Shanahan, Porfeli, Mortimer, & Erickson, 2005). Given that high school students become increasingly concerned with the transition from school to work as they age, anticipated adult work values appear to be more strongly tied to current work values than are current part-time work experiences. This pattern is reasonable given that part-time work available to adolescents is generally temporary and offers little chance for advancement into career-track jobs. The relatively weak link between work values and part-time work experiences may also be due to the social structural constraints that exist within the part-time labor force. Adolescents may have little personal control over their part-time work experiences and this circumstance may impede cohesion and discrepancy reduction in the person-within-context unit at it pertains to work values and experiences (Mortimer et al., 1992a). The part-time work setting, therefore, appears to have a weak influence over vocational development, because adolescents’ appear to achieve and maintain much greater value system harmony than person-within-work context harmony during this period. Seemingly, being a worker has a weaker influence over career development than does the image invoked when we imagine becoming a worker during the high school years.