صنایع خلاق در شرق آسیا
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|2188||2005||14 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||محاسبه نشده|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Cities, Volume 22, Issue 2, April 2005, Pages 109–122
Throughout East Asia, the growth process and its sources are changing in a number of important respects, especially for middle and higher income economies. Growth will increasingly come from the strength of innovative activities in these economies instead of factor accumulation as in the past. Recent research suggests that such innovative activities, especially in producer services and the creative industries, are concentrated in high-tech clusters in globally linked cities. The development of such cities is influenced by ongoing structural changes and initiatives by governments and firms. This paper explores these issues and suggests how policies and institutions can induce and furnish an urban environment that supports innovative activities that in turn lead to rapid growth.
Across East Asia,1 the growth process and its sources are changing in a number of important respects. For the middle and higher income economies, innovation capability rather than resource inputs will determine a significantly higher share of their overall growth. Recent research (Yusuf and Evenett, 2002 and Yusuf et al., 2003) suggests that innovative activity is concentrated in high-tech clusters within larger, globally linked dynamic cities. Thus, the future performance of East Asia is likely to rest on the innovation systems in selected urban centers. Such development will be influenced by a number of ongoing structural changes in East Asia and will be guided by a range of initiatives taken by governments and by firms. This paper seeks to elucidate these changes and initiatives. It is divided into four parts. Part I briefly sketches the trends that will provide the context for urban-centered growth led by innovation. Part II summarizes the findings from recent research on growth that underscores the role of productivity, urban services, and skills. Part III examines the contribution that elements of the urban milieu can make to growth, such as the efficiency of urban services, the degree of competition and the supply of skilled and creative workers. Part IV concludes by indicating how policies and institutions can induce and furnish an urban environment that supports rapid growth.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
This paper has highlighted two structural changes ongoing in East Asia. One is the shift of a majority of the population from rural to urban areas. The second is the shifting economic center of gravity of the leading cities from manufacturing to business services and the creative industries. For these cities that are likely to lead growth over the coming decades, the key to a successful transition from export-oriented manufacturing to a service economy that is competitive and integrated with the global systems may involve a reshaping of the urban landscape so that providers of business services and the creative industries perceive it to be value augmenting for their purposes and a basis for competitive advantage. There are several different attributes of a city that can add value. Some are geographical or have arisen from historical accidents. Others are amenable to policy and regulatory actions by various bodies of governments. On the central government rests the responsibility for ensuring macroeconomic stability, the quality of tertiary education, incentives for R&D, openness to flows of trade, finance and knowledge workers and strengthening the institutions for the protection of intellectual property, commercial contracts and other economic rights that are the bedrock of domestic prosperity and fruitful international economic relations. On the shoulders of municipalities rests the complementary responsibilities for providing services and for regulating a wide spectrum of activities in ways that contain the transaction costs for business while adding value. Provision of infrastructure, the regulation of transport and of zoning, support for recreational and cultural amenities, effective policing and environmental management are some of the key activities municipal governments need to attend with a close eye to the standards set by their competitors across East Asia. Only a few cities in East Asia are going to evolve or remain as the service-providing hubs for the region or the centers of creative industries. Cities will need to compete fiercely for these services, as they are notoriously footloose, having very few assets other than their highly talented knowledge workers. Thus, meeting or exceeding the requirements of the service providers and their employees will be decisive to the future economic performance of the main urban centers of East Asia.