تعمیر و نگهداری استراتژیک ، مدیریت در صنایع نیجریه
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|21942||2006||17 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||6297 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Applied Energy, Volume 83, Issue 3, March 2006, Pages 211–227
A developing society needs to adapt to change and foster creativity. In the pursuit of continual improvement (e.g., reducing fossil-fuel consumption and waste, better service performance, greater availability and improved reliability), implementing wise maintenance-schedules is essential for contemporary organisations. Several studies of a wide range of Nigerian industries indicate that indigenous low availability and low productivity are endemic. The resulting closure of some of these industries has triggered off a realisation of the strategic challenges in maintenance management. In addition, the increasingly-competitive business environment in Nigeria has raised the strategic importance of maintenance functions, especially in organisations with significant investments in physical assets. Five strategic aspects of maintenance management have been identified, namely: maintenance methodology; support processes; organisation and work structuring; comparable culture; and general management policy. Three factors that permeate these dimensions are wise leadership, excellent communications and an understanding of the human factors involved.
The subject of change influences much of what is currently being written about management. All organisations are being exhorted to adapt to changes and hence introduce modern technology, leadership skills and more effective means of communication. It has become evident that any organisation that wishes to achieve rapid, substantial and sustainable improvements in maintenance effectiveness, in other words in physical-asset performance, must act strategically. Maintenance actions are dependent on such factors as the plant’s downtime history, and its expected life. Maintenance should preserve the functions of the assets. With rising expectations, increasingly onerous regulatory constraints, shifting technological paradigms and frequent reorganisations, major corporations have developed formal mission-statements to help them maintain a successful course through these many demands. Thus, it is worth developing a corresponding commitment to facilitate the maintenance team doing likewise. The mission statement must recognise the needs of all the stakeholders of the maintenance service. Maintenance serves three distinct groups – the owners of the asset, the users (usually the operators), and society as a whole. Maintenance depends on a range of people – from designers of the equipment to its operators. Thus it is desirable to acknowledge the need for everyone involved with the asset to share a correct common understanding of what needs to be done, and to be able and willing to do whatever is needed right first time, every time. If systems do not fail, maintenance would be superfluous! The technology of maintenance includes finding and applying suitable ways of managing techniques that include predictive and preventive maintenance, failure-finding and run-to-failure . Each category includes a host of options: maintainers need to learn what these options are, but they also need to decide which are worth implementing in their own organisations. If they make the right choices, it is possible to improve asset performance, and simultaneously even reduce the cost of maintenance. If they make wrong choices, new problems may arise while existing problems get worse, so the mission statement should stress the need to make the most cost-effective choices from the full array of options. The severity and frequency with which a failure incurs adverse consequences dictate whether a particular failure-management technique is worth applying. So, the mission statement should acknowledge the key role of consequence avoidance in maintenance. The development and execution of a maintenance strategy for an industrial plant consists of three steps : • Formulate a maintenance strategy for each asset (i.e., work identification). • Acquire the resources (namely skilled people, spares and tools) needed to execute the strategy effectively. • Execute the well thought-out strategy (i.e., deploy and operate the systems needed to manage the resources efficiently). Most of what has been written on maintenance strategy refers to three basic types, namely, predictive, preventive and corrective maintenance. However, Moubray  adds a fourth, that is, detective maintenance. Predictive (or condition-based) tasks entail checking to see if the process is failing. Preventive maintenance usually means overhauling a system before its failure occurs: it is divided into time-based and condition-based maintenance. Time-based (according to a fixed time-schedule) maintenance is wasteful if no faults exist. Corrective maintenance means fixing or replacing components either when they are found to be failing or when they have failed. Detective (i.e., failure-finding) maintenance applies only to hidden or unrevealed failures and hidden failures usually only affect protective devices. In spite of the availability of all of the aforementioned maintenance policies and their abilities to prevent failures or restore the system to its operating condition in most situations, deteriorations and breakdowns still occur and associated environmental disasters happen. Each maintenance policy has its own limitations and disadvantages. For example, in the case of failure-based maintenance, it is difficult to plan the maintenance activities appropriately: thus, the failure of the considered component can cause a large amount of consequential damage to other parts of the system or plant. Time-based maintenance incurs a large financial cost for the user in trying to maintain the required level of system reliability, because the majority of items are replaced prematurely, i.e., while they still have a considerable useful-life remaining . In condition-based maintenance, it may not be cost effective to monitor the condition of every component of the system: some will be inaccessible for monitoring. So, it is beneficial not to treat condition-based maintenance as a stand-alone policy, but instead as a part of an integrated maintenance strategy. Consequently, the industry has become aware that a single maintenance policy cannot eliminate all breakdowns or restore the plant to its full operating capability. This awareness gave birth to maintenance strategies like reliability-centred maintenance (RCM) and total productive maintenance (TPM). (i) RCM determines what must be done to ensure that a physical asset continues to do whatever it was designed to do. A failure of one component may stop a whole plant performing to the standard required by its users. Before any blend of failure-management tools can be applied successfully, it is necessary to identify what failures are likely to occur. The RCM process: • Identifies what circumstances amount to a failed state. • Asks what event can cause the asset to fail. • Provides a maintenance-oriented framework to meet the challenges. • Deals effectively with each type of failure process with appropriate maintenance tactics. • Improves maintenance productivity by adopting a more proactive, planned approach. • Extends the run duration between scheduled shut-downs. • Ensures the active support and cooperation of all personnel, e.g., between the maintenance, materials, operations and technical functions. The RCM process develops and optimises the effective maintenance programme. (ii) TPM: RCM is an asset-centred methodology with the primary focus on making decisions concerning the type of maintenance tasks to be used, whereas TPM is a methodology with a different orientation – it focuses on people and is an integral part of total quality management (TQM) . TPM methodology was developed, initially in Japan’s manufacturing industries, with the aim of reducing production losses due to machine breakdowns in JIT production-processes. TPM organises maintenance procedures by applying the following actions : • Cultivate a sense of ownership in the operator by introducing autonomous operator maintenance, i.e., the operator takes responsibility for the primary care of his/her plant. The tasks involved include routine inspection, lubrication, adjustment, major repairs, as well as cleanliness and tidiness of the operator’s workspace. • Optimise the operator’s skills and knowledge of his/her plant to maximise the operating effectiveness. The operator is thus mobilised to detect early signs of wear, maladjustment, oil leaks or loose parts. He/she is also involved in making improvement suggestions to reduce the losses due to a break-down or sub-optimal performance of the plant. • Use cross-functional teams, consisting of operators, maintenance technicians, engineers and managers to improve performances of those members and equipment. • Establish a schedule of clean-up and preventive maintenance to extend the plant’s life-span and maximises its up-time.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Organisations that are successful at implementing employee-involvement practices use a strategy to achieve a match between the practices and the organisations culture (i.e., its unique values, beliefs and mission). Todays competitive environment M.C. Eti et al. / Applied Energy 83 (2006) 211–227 225 requires that industries succeed in sustaining full production capabilities, while minimising capital investment. From a maintenance perspective, this means maximising equipment reliability (i.e., achieving maximum uptime), while extending the plants life. This proactive approach needs a total planned quality maintenance (TPQM) programme, the systemising of all (i.e., preventive, predictive, and planned) maintenance, plus the control of maintenance quality. As the global marketplace becomes more competitive, such advantages are necessary in order to maintain the long-term corporate economic health. The strategic dimensions of maintenance management form the basis for wise decision-making, which can be performed during any phase of the system s life, but preferably sooner than later. Organisational design, maintenance methodology, adequate support systems, corporate culture and general management have been identified as necessary factors for the effective maintenance in Nigerian electricpower stations. The relevant factors are (i) human-data information flow and (ii) having an excellent learning organisation. Tsang  maintains that understanding the behaviour of personnel at work as well as the conditions for enhancing group effectiveness will produce superior organisational designs that stimulate peoples minds and create an internal commitment to the enterprise. Due consideration of these factors will also increase the chances of success when faced with rapid change. The maintenance strategy should contain considerations of the following elements: Maintenance organisation and management. Measures of effectiveness. Work control. Maintenance-management information system. Personnel records regarding competences. Technical documentation. Logistic support. Maintenance tasks. Maintenance engineering. The seamless flow of information is another enabler for achieving exemplary performance. The availability of pertinent information immediately when required can influence a persons behaviour when a performance-management process (communicating the espoused strategy and emphasising a balanced assessment) is employed . e-Maintenance has tremendous potential for implementing a maintenance strategy. However, the characteristics of a world-class plant-preventive maintenance, without machine breakdowns during scheduled runs, are as yet virtually non-existent in Nigeria.