جنبه های روش شناختی و عملی داده کاوی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|22023||2000||11 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||5730 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Information & Management, Volume 37, Issue 5, August 2000, Pages 271–281
We describe the different stages in the data mining process and discuss some pitfalls and guidelines to circumvent them. Despite the predominant attention on analysis, data selection and pre-processing are the most time-consuming activities, and have a substantial influence on ultimate success. Successful data mining projects require the involvement of expertise in data mining, company data, and the subject area concerned. Despite the attractive suggestion of ‘fully automatic’ data analysis, knowledge of the processes behind the data remains indispensable in avoiding the many pitfalls of data mining.
Data mining is receiving more and more attention from the business community, as witnessed by frequent publications in the popular IT-press, and the growing number of tools appearing on the market. The commercial interest in data mining is mainly due to increasing awareness of companies that the vast amounts of data collected on customers and their behavior contain valuable information. If the hidden information can be made explicit, it can be used to improve vital business processes. Such developments are accompanied by the construction of data warehouses and data marts. These are integrated databases that are specifically created for the purpose of analysis rather than to support daily business transactions. Many publications on data mining discuss the construction or application of algorithms to extract knowledge from data. The emphasis is generally on the analysis phase. When a data mining project is performed in an organizational setting, one discovers that there are other important activities in the process. These activities are often more time consuming and have an equally large influence on the ultimate success of the project. Data mining is a multi-disciplinary field, that is at the intersection of statistics, machine learning, database management, and data visualization. A natural question comes to mind: to what extent does it provide a new perspective on data analysis? This question has received some attention within the community. A popular answer is that data mining is concerned with the extraction of knowledge from reallylarge data sets. In our view, this is not the complete answer. Company databases indeed are often quite large, especially if one considers data on customer transactions. One should however take into account the fact that: • Once the data mining question is specified accurately, only a small part of this large and heterogeneous database is of interest. • Even if the remaining dataset is large, a sample often suffices to construct accurate models. If not necessarily in the size of the dataset, where does the contribution of the data mining perspective lie? Four aspects are of particular interest: 1. There is a growing need for valid methods that cover the whole process (also called Knowledge Discovery in Databases or KDD), from problem formulation to the implementation of actions and monitoring of models. Methods are needed to identify the important steps, and indicate the required expertise and tools. Such methods are required to improve the quality and controllability of the process. 2. If it is going to be used on a daily basis within organizations, then a better integration with existing information systems infrastructures is required. It is, for example, important to couple analysis tools with Data Warehouses and to integrate data mining functionality with end-user software, such as marketing campaign schedulers. 3. From a statistical viewpoint it is often of dubious value because of the absence of a study design. Since the data were not collected with any set of analysis questions in mind, they were not sampled from a pre-defined population, and data quality may be insufficient for analysis requirements. These anomalies in data sets require a study of problems related with analysis of ‘non-random’ samples, data pollution, and missing data. 4. Ease of interpretation is often understood to be a defining characteristic of data mining techniques. The demand for explainable models leads to a preference for techniques such as rule induction, classification trees, and, more recently, bayesian networks. Furthermore, explainable models encourage the explicit involvement of domain experts in the analysis process.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Data mining or knowledge discovery in databases (KDD) is an exploratory and iterative process that consists of a number of stages. Data selection and data pre-processing are the most time-consuming activity, especially in the absence of a data warehouse. Data mining tools should therefore provide extensive support for data manipulation and combination. They should also provide easy access to DBMSs in which the source data reside. The commitment of a subject area expert, data mining expert as well as a data expert to the project is critical for its success. Despite the attractive suggestion of ‘fully automatic’ data analysis, knowledge of the processes behind the data remains indispensable to avoid the many pitfalls of data mining. Although company databases are usually quite large, proper formulation of the analysis question and an adequate sampling scheme often allows the database to be reduced to manageable size. It is typical for data mining projects that the data have not been collected for the purpose of analysis, but rather to support daily business processes. This may lead to low-quality data, as well as biases in the data that may reduce the applicability of discovered patterns.