ادغام در شبکه های حسگر: تجارت کردن دقت-انرژی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|22353||2003||15 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||8644 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Ad Hoc Networks, Volume 1, Issues 2–3, September 2003, Pages 317–331
Wireless ad hoc sensor networks (WASNs) are in need of the study of useful applications that will help the researchers view them as distributed physically coupled systems, a collective that estimates the physical environment, and not just energy-limited ad hoc networks. We develop this perspective using a large and interesting class of WASN applications called aggregation applications. In particular, we consider the challenging periodic aggregation problem where the WASN provides the user with periodic estimates of the environment, as opposed to simpler and previously studied snapshot aggregation problems. In periodic aggregation our approach allows the spatial–temporal correlation among values sensed at the various nodes to be exploited towards energy-efficient estimation of the aggregated value of interest. Our approach also creates a system level energy vs. accuracy knob whereby the more the estimation error that the user can tolerate, the less is the energy consumed. We present a distributed estimation algorithm that can be applied to explore the energy–accuracy subspace for a subclass of periodic aggregation problems, and present extensive simulation results that validate our approach. The resulting algorithm, apart from being more flexible in the energy–accuracy subspace and more robust, can also bring considerable energy savings for a typical accuracy requirement (fivefold decrease in energy consumption for 5% estimation error) compared to repeated snapshot aggregations.
The technological advances in embedded computers, sensors, and radios have led to the emergence of wireless ad hoc sensor networks (WASNs) as a new class of system with uses in diverse and useful applications. Indeed, the early papers in the area , ,  and  talk about the vision of cheap self-organizing ad hoc networks that are able to perform a higher level sensing task through the collaboration of a large number of cheaper and resource constrained wireless sensor nodes. Leveraging numerous sensing devices placed close to the actual physical phenomena, the information that such networks can provide is more accurate and richer than the information provided by a system of few, expensive, state-of-the-art sensing devices. Since WASNs operate largely unattended, often in environments where the access cost of deploying or maintaining nodes is high, a key problem in designing WASNs is how to prolong their useful lifetime by conserving energy. Consequently, a large fraction of research in WASNs has been dedicated to aspects of the energy-efficiency problem. The original vision and promise of WASNs was that multiple nodes collectively perform the sensing task requested by the users and communicate the results to the users. However, most of the research so far has simply viewed WASNs as just another kind of wireless ad hoc networks, albeit one composed of nodes that are more energy-constrained and whose data sources are sensors. So, for example, much work has focused on issues such as energy-efficient MAC and ad hoc routing protocols to realize the needed point-to-point and point-to-multipoint communication patterns in WASNs. But, little has been done to develop an understanding of a WASN as a collective or an aggregate where sensor nodes collaborate to jointly estimate the desired answer about the sensed environment. In part this is because not many actual applications useful to the end-user have been studied. The only notable exception is the target-tracking problem, which has drawn attention from several research groups. Otherwise, the applications that have been examined are usually “toy” scenarios used to showcase the abilities of protocols and programming frameworks (e.g., ), or very specific applications examined for the sake of some energy-saving technique (e.g., ). In this research we have made a first attempt at exploring and understanding the performance of a WASN as a collective that performs a sensing task. We examine a general class of WASN applications that we call aggregation applications where the desired answer depends on the sensed value at multiple nodes. In particular, we explore the energy vs. accuracy subspace, i.e. how much energy savings can one get by relaxing some accuracy requirements and vice versa. We propose an algorithm that exploits this trade-off and jointly considers networking and signal processing issues to create a distributed estimation mechanism. 1.1. Aggregation applications Many of the examples and simple applications presented in WASN research are based around some kind of aggregation function. The most popular and simple examples of aggregation functions are “maximum” and “average”. That is, a user may be interested in knowing the max (or average) of a value in the WASN or in some restricted area of the WASN. If this function needs to be performed once, we refer to it as “snapshot aggregation”. If the user needs an update in periodic intervals we refer to it as “periodic aggregation”. The snapshot aggregation problem is trivial for a single static user. The user sends a request to flood the sensor network (or the area of interest). Upon reception of a request message a node sets the sender of the message as its parent, leading towards the user. This way an aggregation tree is formed with the user node at its root. Data are flowing along the aggregation tree towards the user while being aggregated at intermediate nodes. For instance, in the max function a node receiving multiple values (i.e., its own local reading and values sent by other nodes) finds their maximum and sends it to its parent. For more details on snapshot aggregation the reader can refer to  and . More generally, in aggregation applications, the user seeks a condensed view of the physical environment the WASN is monitoring, or a condensed view of the network’s state. To achieve this, the values from all the nodes (i.e., sensor readings or node state values) are aggregated to a size-bounded vector describing this condensed view. Furthermore, several important properties hold for the aggregation process: (i) multiple local values can be combined to an aggregated description with a single pass, (ii) multiple aggregated descriptions and multiple local values can be combined to an aggregated description with a single pass. These properties permit the aggregation process to be done easily within the network, without the need for multiple passes of the data. A counter-example is the calculation of median, as it requires two passes of the data. The bound on the aggregated description (i.e., vector) is O(1). In order to include more specific cases of applications (like some referenced in related work) the bound can be relaxed to O(N), where N is the number of nodes in the network. Some examples more advanced than “max” and “average” include: (i) approximate contours of nodes’ residual energy (similar to the specific case studied in ), (ii) approximate the boundary line between sensing and no-sensing (e.g. of light) with a straight line or a parabola (similar to the specific case studied in ). Whatever the aggregation function is, the basic structure of in-network processing in snapshot aggregation remains the same, combining values and descriptions at intermediate nodes until the final aggregated description reaches the user. This kind of in-network processing is similar to traditional distributed/parallel computing where precise information is handled and the correct execution of the algorithm often depends on the right number and order of messages exchanged. We call such processing type-I. If periodic aggregation is needed then one could run snapshot aggregations periodically, executing accurate type-I algorithms periodically. This indeed is the conventional approach. 1.2. Our contribution: distributed estimation approach In WASNs though, unlike traditional distributed computing systems, there is a strong coupling to the physical world as we are monitoring some parameters of a physical process. The WASN by its nature can only sample this physical process, which in turn implies that we are only getting an approximation of the parameters sought. Once this point is understood, it is realized that the algorithms in WASNs have an inherent extra dimension: accuracy. We can exploit this extra dimension to produce more energy-efficient algorithms. The less accuracy is required, the more energy can be saved using proper algorithmic techniques. For example, in our particular case, the spatial–temporal correlation of sensor node’s values is leveraged to create estimates of the aggregated descriptions of the environment. The less accurate the estimates need to be, the fewer messages need to be exchanged. We argue that approximation and estimation are an inherent part of WASN algorithms and should be taken into account while designing algorithms for WASN. We call such type of in-network processing type-II. Type-II algorithms are essentially distributed estimation algorithms. Essential to our development of such distributed estimation algorithms is the joint consideration, or co-design, of the signal processing algorithms and networking protocols that have thus far been treated separately in WASNs. In this paper, we propose a distributed estimation algorithm that explores the energy/accuracy subspace for the periodic aggregation domain. We have validated our approach through simulation using the “max” aggregation function as an example. The “min” aggregation function is completely symmetrical. Note that the “max” aggregation function can be on any property of the actual local measurements. For instance, if we are interested in the maximum rate of change among local measurements, the aggregation function will be done on the derivatives of the local measurements. We are currently working to extend our algorithm to the more general kth max case. In its current form, the algorithm cannot be applied to summary aggregation functions  like “average”, “count” etc. In Section 2 we examine related work. In Section 3 we introduce some initial approaches to the problem. In Section 4 we describe our distributed estimation algorithm. Section 5 presents simulation results. Finally, Section 6 concludes the paper.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
In this paper we study a large class of applications in WASNs, namely aggregation applications. We propose a distributed estimation algorithm that can be applied to a subclass of periodic aggregation problems. Our algorithm exploits the energy–accuracy trade-off in WASNs to provide the user with a larger solution space than the conventional approach of periodically running snapshot aggregations. We validate our algorithm through simulation, achieving promising results.