استراتژی اتحاد به عنوان یک استراتژی رقابتی برای توسعه خلاق پی در پی محصول جدید : اثبات تکامل مشترک خلاقیت و بهره وری در صنعت داروسازی ژاپنی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|22501||2002||8 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Technovation, Volume 22, Issue 10, October 2002, Pages 607–614
Aimed at analyzing the continuity of core competence in a core field, the behavior of 11 Japanese pharmaceutical firms over the last two decades was analyzed. This study demonstrates that firms could maintain originality as a core competence in ongoing new product development (NPD) by utilizing a licensed alliance product as a tool for maintaining or injecting this originality. This finding was demonstrated by a comparative study of the core fields of each firm in the Japanese pharmaceutical industry.
The significance of enforcing core competence for creativity in new product development (NPD), while hedging against the risk of dynamic changes in customers' preference, has emerged as a key strategic consideration (Hamel and Prahalad, 1994a, Hamel and Prahalad, 1994b and Hamel, 2000). For continual growth, creative and original NPD is essential for the following reasons: 1. For ongoing economical growth, ongoing original NPDs are essential from the point of the continuity of the existing R&D core competence (Lester, 1998, Porter, 1998 and Porter and Takeuchi, 2000). 2. For adapting R&D activities to rapid market changes by technological innovation and novel technologies, the importance of core competence for creative NPDs became seriously has been a consideration from the viewpoint of creative destruction (Schumpeter, 1935). Creativity is of essence for original NPD for all industries. However, the process of successive or cumulative NPD is different between material-based industries and assembly-based industries. For material industries, creativity in original NPD is recognized as a critical component of core competence (Cockburn and Henderson, 1994). Thus, creative and original NPD is indispensable for material industries which inevitably stimulates high R&D intensity. Among material industries, an externally high level of creativity is the core particularly for the pharmaceutical industry. Thus, the pharmaceutical industry is compelled to maintain an extremely high level of R&D intensity level as illustrated in Fig. 1. Full-size image (8 K) Fig. 1. R&D intensity in the Japanese Manufacturing Industry in 1998. R&D expenditure per sales (%). aFigures in parentheses indicate R&D intensity in 1997. bNot include pharmaceutical. cAverage R&D intensity for whole manufacturing industry is 3.89% in 1998 (3.67 in 1997). dSources: report on the Survey of Research and Development. Figure options While ongoing and continuous R&D investment is indispensable for the pharmaceutical industry to maintain a high level of R&D intensity thereby enhancing its core competence, firms must also secure a risk hedge against unexpected dynamic changes in customer preference. These dual contradictory requirements compel the pharmaceutical industry to depend more on alliance strategies than other industries. This paper focuses on the role of these alliance strategies in the pharmaceutical industry in order to satisfy the dual and contradictory requirements of continuity and yet flexible and extreme changes in NPD. Notwithstanding a number of studies on the significance and the role of creativity in NPD, the key factors for ongoing and cumulative creativity in NPD has not yet been analyzed. Although the Japanese economic decline and the rise of American economical growth are often explained by fundamental differences in creative abilities and competitive structure (Lester, 1998, Porter, 1998 and Porter and Takeuchi, 2000), these assertions still remain non-practical philosophical postulates. According to traditional knowledge creation theory, creative NPD is mainly focused on the assembly industry (for reviews, see Nonaka, 1991, Nonaka and Takeuchi, 1995 and Von Krogh et al., 2000). Successive NPD is successfully performed by knowledge creation as a source of value (Von Krogh et al., 2000). Contrary to this performance in the assembly industry, NPD in the material industry is performed not only by knowledge creation but also by the creation of discontinuous new products, or products outside the usual range. However, discontinuous NPD often obstructs business practice because of the high-risk and sometimes limited returns (Pfeffer and Sutton, 2000). In view of the process of NPD, NPD is made by a problem-solving process in the assembly industries (Allen, 1966 and Clerk and Fujimoto, 1991). NPD in the assemble industries is characterized by a method or product platform, often represented by concurrent engineering system (Ohno, 1988, Clerk and Fujimoto, 1991 and Fujimoto, 1993). From the viewpoint of discontinuous NPD, the pharmaceutical industry is a typical industry in the material industries subset. However, the pharmaceutical industry has to maintain continuity for NPD (Pisano, 1997) because of the long duration of development period and the huge expense for NPD (Takayama and Watanabe, 2001). Accordingly, two contradictory factors are essential for NPD in the pharmaceutical industry (Henderson and Cockburn, 1994a, Henderson and Cockburn, 1994b and Pisano, 1997). Notwithstanding the above discussions, it has not yet proven whether there is a key strategy for creativity in the co-evolution of contradictory aspects as discontinuous and cumulative (ongoing) NPD. This paper starts by defining these two contradictory aspects of creativity in NPD. According to the common treatment of creativity, a core competence of creative and original NPD is the opposite of a core competence of the continuity of the existing core competence. This paper demonstrates the co-evolution of these two contradictory aspects of creativity in firms through the alliance strategy in the pharmaceutical industry. This paper also demonstrates the co-evolution of creativity and efficiency in pharmaceutical NPD by analyzing successive NPDs in the Japanese pharmaceutical industry. The significance of this alliance strategy for successive NPD is that firms can maintain originality as a core competence for ongoing NPD by utilizing the alliance product, or a product licensed from another firm, as a tool for maintaining or creating the originality. This alliance strategy serves as a competitive strategy for maintaining and creating core competence for NPD. This novel finding is demonstrated through a comparative analysis of the product area and product pipeline for each firm in the Japanese pharmaceutical industry. Section 2 proposes a new classification for this kind of creativity in the continuum of the business practice by analyzing ongoing NPD in the Japanese pharmaceutical industry. Based on this classification of creativity, we conclude that the core competence for creativity in cumulative NPD is actually original or unique NPD by comparing the originality of NPD for each firm. Section 3 demonstrates the significance of this alliance strategy for successive NPD by proposing a product spiral model. Section 4 briefly summarizes the results of this analysis, presents conclusions and discusses implications.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
In spite of the general recognition of the significance of cumulative NPD, the mechanism and key factors for remaining competitive with this strategy alone have not been proven. Although most studies treat NPD as a process of innovation, this investigation demonstrates that the most crucial factor for success in cumulative NPD is the process for the co-evolution of creativity and efficiency. In terms of NPD, each firm has a original core field. Originality in NPD was divided into two dimensions. One dimension was continuous NPD and the other was creative destruction in NPD. The alliance product served as a between these two dimensions. These dual contradictory requirements compel the pharmaceutical industry to depend more on alliance strategies than other industries. This analysis demonstrates that firms could maintain originality as a core competence in ongoing NPD by utilizing a licensed alliance product as a tool for maintaining or injecting this originality. While consistent and continuous R&D investment is indispensable for the pharmaceutical industry to maintain a high level of R&D intensity thereby enhancing its core competence, firms must also secure a risk hedge against unexpected dynamic changes in customer preference. The role of these alliance strategies in the pharmaceutical industry in order to satisfy the dual contradictory requirements of continuity and yet flexible and extreme changes in NPD. In view of the process of NPD, the problem-solving process in assembly industries primarily revolves around problem identification. Contrary to typical discussions, NPD in the material industries is primarily based on a target-search for new products. Typically the pharmaceutical industry differs from the assembly-type industries because R&D begins with the one spot search. This kind of R&D has been explained as a factor of something peculiar to this type of industry but that produces creativity and surprisingly enhances efficiency. This paper elucidated the crucial factors for successive NPD and the significant role of the alliance product strategy to evade the typical inertia trap found in cumulative NPD. Future research should address the mechanism and factors governing the co-evolution of creativity and efficiency.