تقسیم بندی بازار و ساختار رقابت: کاربرد مفهوم گروه استراتژیک برای تقسیم بندی بازار بهبود یافته در بازارهای صنعتی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|22811||2001||12 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||محاسبه نشده|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Business Research, Volume 51, Issue 1, January 2001, Pages 25–36
In recent years, many attempts were made to elaborate reliable segmentation concepts. However, even current articles on market segmentation focus only on customers. Competitors are at best accounted for once the segment formation is completed. And in contrast to customer analysis, the methodological consideration of competitors is rather superficial and unsystematic. In this respect, the current approach of market segmentation in theory and practice generally reflects the one-sidedness of marketing as criticized by Day and Wensley [Day GS, Wensley R. Marketing theory with a strategic orientation. J Mark 1983;47:79–89]. The authors claim that the results of segmentation could be improved considerably if information on competitors were considered in the process of market segmentation. A preliminary empirical test of the approach shows good support for the authors' hypotheses.
Since Smith (1956) coined the term ‘market segmentation,’ the concept has received considerable attention both in marketing theory and practice. Although the approach was originally developed in connection with questions relating to the consumer market sector, it has found wide acceptance in the industrial market sector as well (for a general survey cf. Chéron and Kleinschmidt, 1985 and Plank, 1985). Today, ‘market segmentation’ is a fundamental concept in modern marketing. Bonoma and Shapiro (1983, p. 2) refer to market segmentation as the “core of good industrial marketing.” At the same time, they reach the conclusion that “conversely, many industrial marketing problems stem from poor market segmentation.” Therefore, it does not come as a surprise that in the past couple of years, many attempts were made to elaborate reliable segmentation concepts. It is striking, however, that even current articles on market segmentation — in the sense of formation and selection of customer groups — focus only on customers. Competitors are at best accounted for once the segment formation is completed. And in contrast to customer analysis, the methodological consideration of competitors is rather superficial and unsystematic. In this respect, the current approach of market segmentation in theory and practice generally reflects the one-sidedness of marketing as criticized by Day and Wensley (1983). According to our view, the results of segmentation could be improved considerably if we could get away from an exclusive customer orientation. 1. The consideration of competitive structure provides additional basic information on segment formation. 2. The consideration of competitive structure facilitates the selection of promising segments. In order to prove our thesis, we will proceed as follows. First, we will present the current state of market segmentation, especially with respect to industrial markets. Second, we will present a proposal, which includes competitive structure. We interpret the strategic group concept as a competitive counterpart to customer segments. Third, we will provide theoretical explanations of both approaches as a summary. Finally, we will put the present concept to a first empirical test using the elevator industry as an example.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Having tested our considerations by using a concrete case from the elevator industry, we are convinced that the formation and selection of segments can be improved if we include theoretical aspects of competitor orientation. The strategic group concept can be regarded as a fruitful expansion of the customer-oriented market segmentation. The main premise is that we have a differentiated strategic group structure in the focused market. While the idea of market segmentation accounts for the fact that, in reality, there are no homogeneous customers (“preference barriers”), our explanations on the strategic groups show that there is similarly no homogeneity on the suppliers' part (“mobility barriers”). A strategic group can be regarded as the supplying counterpart to the market segments. The customer preferences noted by competitors give an indirect hint of the customers' buying behavior. Furthermore, the strategic group concept allows a more profound understanding of competitor behavior. We find direct answers, particularly to questions on: 1. retaliation against the entrance of a newcomer by established firms, and 2. the capability to defend an attractive segment within the course of time. As these questions are highly relevant for marketing management, it seems appropriate to change the practice of segmentation. An emphasis is put on the dynamic perspective of segmentation. The temporal structure of decisions concerning entrance or exit could be improved. The concept of segmentation is linked to the market process. The interdependencies of segmentation become more obvious. Nevertheless, a first empirical test cannot state the general validity of our considerations of market segmentation. First of all, we must test the hypotheses, which are explicitly and implicitly applied to this concept. A scientific approach to this area is both academically challenging and necessary. The potential result for practical marketing would be worth the effort.