پیشبرد دانش: یک عنصر کلیدی از مدیریت یکپارچه ساحلی برنامه کاری راهبردی بانک جهانی در کشورهای جنوب صحرای آفریقا
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|22958||2000||17 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||6593 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Ocean & Coastal Management, Volume 43, Issues 4–5, April 2000, Pages 361–377
Advancing knowledge in integrated coastal management (ICM) is a key element of the ICM Strategic Agenda of the World Bank in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Advancing knowledge encompasses both the transfer of information and skills as well as the sharing of information and synthesis of local knowledge to support decision-making processes in client countries. Facilitating access to knowledge, generating new information and knowledge are key to empowerment. A key goal of development is empowering people to manage their own destinies. The World Bank is committed to this goal and makes concerted efforts to make information accessible and to promote knowledge in a variety of disciplines through a mix of modalities. The aim of this paper is to discuss select interventions supported by the Bank to promote ICM in SSA, the context within which they are implemented and emerging lessons from the experience.
The coastal areas all over the world are in crisis, mainly through over-exploitation of the resource base. The situation is no different in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where heavy concentrations of human settlements are placing increasing pressures on an already stressed ecosystem. Significant areas of the coastal zone of Africa, are polluted from local or upland sources, fishery resources are overfished and depleted, coral reefs and mangroves are threatened or being destroyed and the fragile coastal habitat which is the source of a rich variety of marine and coastal species, is being transformed by developmental activities. Increased resource use conflicts are posing challenges to coastal nations and to the social and economic well-being of coastal communities. Environmentally sound responses are needed if the threats to coastal communities and habitat through global climate change and sea-level rise are to be minimized. The World Bank's over-arching goal in Africa is poverty reduction through environmentally and socially sustainable development. The Bank's Environmentally Sustainable Development Strategy for Sub-Saharan Africa  emphasizes that more than any other region of the world, SSA relies on its environmental base from both an economic and social perspective. The resource base is at risk for a number of interdependent issues. In the coastal areas, heavy dependence on the marine and coastal resources, extreme poverty among coastal communities and in-migration to coastal areas combine to place heavy pressures on coastal ecosystems. Degraded coastal and marine ecosystems result in lower productivity, lower incomes and poor health in coastal communities. Rapid population growth and the significant increase of HIV and AIDS in coastal communities are other dimensions which add to the complex web of interlinked problems in the coastal areas of SSA, making sustainable development in these areas a challenge of daunting proportions. Integrated coastal management (ICM) is recognized by the international community and by many coastal nations as an appropriate policy process to balance the conservation of the valuable ecosystem with the development of economic activities dependent on these resources and areas. The World Bank's commitment to ICM is evidenced by the development of comprehensive guidelines outlining: (a) the main issues in coastal zone management; (b) the principles of an integrated approach; and (c) detailed guidelines for the development of integrated programs to manage key issues. In the Africa region, a framework for ICM: “Africa: A Framework for Integrated Coastal Zone Management” was developed in 1994 , setting forth a logical progression in the evolution of ICM programs from problem identification and planning through coastal management plan adoption to implementation and investment projects. Building on this framework as well as the Environmentally Sustainable Development Strategy for Sub-Saharan Africa, the region has prepared a strategic agenda for ICM, which identifies key areas for Bank intervention over the short-to-medium term. This strategy: “Integrated Coastal Management in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Strategic Agenda” is being discussed with the Bank's partners in the international community as well as with potential clients in SSA, to develop a joint plan for collaboration . One of the central themes of the strategy is advancing knowledge in ICM, through partnerships, networking, information sharing and promoting targeted training and capacity building in the region. The objective of this paper is to outline some of the pilot approaches that the Bank has initiated to advance knowledge in ICM in different sub-regions in SSA and to draw emerging lessons. The paper briefly outlines the crisis in the coastal areas in SSA and key elements of the Bank's strategic agenda in ICM. Emphasizing the value of advancing knowledge through targeted training, information sharing and the synthesis of knowledge in promoting ICM, the paper discusses pilot approaches supported by the Bank to developing local capacity. The paper concludes with an assessment of emerging lessons and challenges that need to be overcome in launching and implementing these initiatives.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Discovery is the key to progress. The challenges faced in the management of coastal and marine resources will lead to the discovery of new and better methods of resource use that will both benefit the coastal communities and conserve the fragile ecosystem. A study of the lessons learned and the challenges faced, is an important instrument in the process of improving the knowledge base. While it is up to the policymakers or the local communities as the case may be, to decide whether a particular lesson or experience is transferable to the local context, disseminating information on the available options is important to facilitate decisions and enable choices to be made. Specialized skills, expertise, international experience and knowledge on modalities for managing coastal and marine activities such as: fisheries management; coastal erosion; wetlands management; and control of pollution of the coastal ecosystem from land-based sources are of critical importance to coastal managers. Information on the relative value and ease (or complexity) in implementing different management interventions including policy and institutional options, education and awareness strategies, market-based incentives, regulations or direct investments can be of immense significance in developing an ICM program. The success of an ICM program is dependent on several important elements. Among them: (a) an appropriate policy and institutional framework; (b) strong and effective leadership; (c) harmonization and coordination between different agencies; (d) the availability of good scientific information on the status and health of the coastal resource base; and (e) public awareness, support and involvement are central  and . While much depends on the resources, capacity, implementation methods and stakeholder involvement in individual programs, knowledge and capacity enhancing initiatives in ICM would yield the following benefits: • improvements in national, local (and regional) commitment to ICM; • strengthened national and local capacity for ICM policy, planning and implementation of programs; • improved coordination among sectoral agencies through shared information and exposure to best practice in ICM; • improved governance of the coastal resource base; • improved awareness at all levels of the need for conservation of threatened coastal/marine species or habitats and ensuring that developmental options are maintained for present and future generations; • improved management of domestic, agricultural and small-scale industrial wastes; • improvements in coastal community health and socio-economic conditions due to better planned settlements.