توسعه مدل یکپارچه تنظیم بازنشستگی : ترکیب تسلط و برنامه ریزی بازنشستگی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|23062||2010||11 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||محاسبه نشده|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Vocational Behavior, Volume 77, Issue 2, October 2010, Pages 279–289
Extending earlier research, this study explores individual (e.g. demographic and health characteristics), psychosocial (e.g. mastery and planning) and organizational factors (e.g. conditions of workforce exit) influencing retirement adjustment. Survey data were collected from 570 semi-retired and retired men and women aged 45 years and older. Findings suggest that higher income, and having better psychological and physical health accounted for better retirement adjustment. After controlling for the effects of demographics and health, a higher personal sense of mastery and more favorable conditions of exit significantly predicted adjustment to retirement. Pre-retirement planning was not related to retirement adjustment. However, analyses revealed that the effect of post-retirement planning on retirement adjustment was mediated by mastery. Practical implications for the design of interventions to promote mastery in later life and provide control over the transition from the workforce are discussed.
The imminent retirement of the baby boomer generation has stimulated global interest in understanding the factors that promote a successful transition to retirement. Yet, research regarding the psychological impact of retirement is inconsistent (Kim & Moen, 2002). For most individuals, retiring from the primary career job represents an important life event, marking the transition from one life stage to another (Kiefer & Briner, 1998). While some evidence suggests that most retirees report being satisfied with their lives, other reports indicate that up to one third of retirees experience the transition as stressful or experience a decline in well-being after retirement (Bosse, Aldwin, Levenson, & Workman-Daniels, 1991). Historically, retirement research has focused on individual characteristics of retirees and was guided by theories relating to the loss of the work role (Szinovacz, 2003). However, researchers are now beginning to explore the role that other factors such as retirement planning (Elder & Rudolph, 1999 and Noone et al., 2009) and the context in which retirees left the workforce (e.g. Quine et al., 2007 and Wong & Earl, 2009) contribute to retirement adjustment. There is also increasing interest in examining the role that personal control or mastery (Pearlin & Schooler, 1978) plays in a successful retirement (Kim & Moen, 2002). Earlier research (Wong & Earl, 2009) proposed an integrated model consisting of individual (demographic and health), psychosocial (work centrality), and organizational (conditions of workforce exit) predictors of retirement adjustment. Drawing upon role theory, the study explored whether those people with higher levels of work centrality would have trouble adjusting to retirement. Their integrated model hypothesized that higher level psychosocial or organizational influences will add to the prediction of retirement adjustment over and above lower-level individual influences. Within the sample of 394 retirees (aged 45–93 years) only individual and organizational influences were found to predict better retirement adjustment. Since work centrality was not related to retirement adjustment the authors concluded that psychosocial influences least influenced retirees' subsequent behaviour. The importance of conditions of exit in predicting retirement adjustment led the authors to recommend a closer examination of planning beyond health and financial domains. They also recommended exploring other possible theories to explain findings including that of a life course perspective (Elder, 1995; Elder & Johnson, 2003). While there is growing evidence that individual and organizational influences play an integral role in retirement adjustment, additional research is required to identify which, if any, psychosocial factors promote retirement adjustment (Wong & Earl, 2009). Building on this previous research, the present study will test the assumption that both contextual and psychosocial factors influence adjustment guided by the life course perspective. Specifically, using a sample of Australian retirees, the aims of the current study are; (1) to determine whether; individual characteristics (e.g. demographic and health characteristics), psychosocial (e.g. mastery and planning) and organizational factors (e.g. conditions of workforce exit) predict retirement adjustment; (2) to investigate the relationship between planning, mastery and retirement adjustment. For the purpose of the current study retirement adjustment is conceptualised as a person's positive retirement experiences (Atchley, 1999).
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Main Findings The current study had two aims: first, to identify factors influencing retirement adjustment, and second, to explore the relationship between planning, mastery and retirement adjustment. In line with the life course approach, psychosocial and contextual factors accounted for differences in retirement adjustment over and above individual factors. Overall, the results indicate that conditions of exit and mastery were the best predictors of retirement adjustment, then psychological health and physical health. The analyses also suggest that a sense of mastery mediated the relationship between post-retirement planning and adjustment. A discussion of the current findings, how they relate to present literature, as well the practical implications, limitations and future research directions is presented below. Predicting Retirement Adjustment Individual Predictors—Demographics An investigation of the demographic influences on retirement adjustment provided partial support for hypothesis 1. Results indicated that retirees who had a higher household income were more likely to report better retirement adjustment. The current findings lend support to the previous literature which reported a positive relationship between greater financial resources and satisfaction in retirement (e.g. Gallo et al., 2000 and Richardson & Kilty, 1991). Significant relationships between marital status and retirement satisfaction disappeared when other demographic factors were controlled for. These findings are in contrast to previous research (e.g. Price & Joo, 2005) that has found divorced or separated women were more dissatisfied than married, remarried or widowed women. Consistent with Wong and Earl (2009) but contrary to expectations, being older, male and retired for longer was not predictive of better retirement adjustment. Individual Predictors—Health As expected, individuals who reported better psychological health and better perceived physical health were more likely to report better adjustment to retirement. The current study adds to the extant literature concerning the benefits of being both physically (Quick & Moen, 1998 and Reitzes & Mutran, 2004) and psychologically healthy (Wong & Earl, 2009) to retirement adjustment. Future studies should consider measuring physical health using either (1) more comprehensive self-report measures (e.g. SF-36, FIC) or (2) objective measures of health. A number of studies have successfully used the SF-36 (e.g. Hawthorne, Osborne, Taylor, & Sansomi, 2007) to determine the health status of research participants. This measure consists of 36 items across eight domains: physical functioning, role physical, bodily pain, general health, vitality, social functioning, role emotion and mental health. Similarly the FIC (functional impairment checklist) measures functionality indicative of health including breathlessness, muscle strength, and engagement in activities (Lam, Tsui, Chan, Lam, & So, 2006). Objective measures might include measurement of lifestyle indicators such as BMI or the 6 minute walking test (Lam et al., 2006). Organizational Influences As anticipated, more favorable conditions of exit significantly predicted better retirement adjustment. In this way, the current study replicates Wong and Earl's (2009) findings and provides further support for the assertion that it is the characteristics of the transition that influence the level of stress experienced, rather than the occurrence of the transition itself. The current findings extend previous research by showing that conditions of exit and mastery were more important predictors of subsequent retirement adjustment, than other factors, such as health and wealth, which have been consistently found to have an important influence on retirement adjustment. Psychosocial influences—Mastery As expected, people who reported higher mastery tended to report greater retirement adjustment. In fact, mastery produced a result comparable to that of conditions of exit. These findings add weight to the proposition that feelings of mastery are linked to well-being (Lachman & Burack, 1993) and builds on the preliminary evidence (e.g. Kim & Moen, 2002) that mastery is an important resource in later life, by showing the salutary effect of mastery on retirement adjustment. Psychosocial influences—Planning Contrary to expectations, pre-retirement planning was not predictive of retirement adjustment. Although these results are in contrast to the previously established findings that prior retirement planning has a positive impact on satisfaction in retirement (Elder & Rudolph, 1999), our results are consistent with a recent meta-analysis (Topa et al., 2009) in which retirement planning did not predict retirement satisfaction. Similarly, Noone and colleagues (2009) also reported that attending a planning seminar and thinking about retirement were not predictive of later life well-being. Combined, these findings suggest that planning alone may not be sufficient for ensuring well-being in retirement. Theoretical and Practical Implications The results of the current study have important theoretical and practical implications. Findings provide support for the practical utility of the life course perspective in understanding retirement adjustment. The current analysis further highlights the importance that control has in promoting better retirement adjustment. Taken together, these findings call attention to the important role that employers and career counsellors have in promoting well-being in retirement. Retirement and the Life Course Perspective As the large baby boomer cohort begin retiring, the focus on understanding what factors promote a successful transition into retirement and well-being in later life will continue. To this end, the life course perspective provides a useful framework for examining the dynamic and complex nature of the retirement transition and adjustment process. Specifically, by viewing the retirement transition as one where individual, contextual and psychological factors interact, researchers and practitioners can begin to gain a more holistic understanding of the retirement process. Importance of Control over Conditions of Exit for Retirement Adjustment The finding that the condition under which a person exits the workforce is one of the most important predictors of subsequent retirement adjustment has important practical implications for individuals, policy makers, and employers. In light of these findings, it is encouraging that Governments in many of the OECD countries, including Australia, have implemented policies providing greater flexibility for older workers approaching retirement (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), 2007). For example, the mandatory retirement age for public servants has been abolished and tax incentives for those remaining in the workforce have been introduced (Quine et al., 2007). However, survey findings indicate that in many western countries up to 50% of early retirement can be classified as forced (Van Solinge & Henkens, 2008). Therefore, sharing and recognising stories of best practise amongst employers is essential. Integrate Retirement Plans into Career Development Programs Findings suggest that unless employers also create opportunities for employees to have control over the conditions in which they leave the workforce, many individuals will experience an uneasy transition and poorer adjustment to retirement. Further, given the sensitive nature of retirement preparation conversations, employees may be particularly reluctant to initiate these discussions unless culturally sanctioned options are provided. This highlights the importance of including retirement preparation in standard career development processes and identifying other ways in which organizations can enable employees to exercise increased levels of control in the retirement decision (Quine et al., 2007). Some examples of initiatives employers could introduce include; job sharing, job transfers, sabbaticals and other flexible work arrangements to provide greater options for older workers (Wang, 2007). Importance of Mastery for Retirement Adjustment Another important contribution of the current study is the finding that having a higher sense of mastery promotes more successful retirement adjustment, over and above the effects of health and individual influences. That is, retirees who believe they have control over their life, experience greater psychological benefits in retirement. The findings highlight opportunities for organizations to design interventions increasing individuals’ sense of mastery. Counsellors and organizational psychologists are encouraged to focus on empowering individuals and building resilience by fostering beliefs regarding individuals’ ability to influence positive outcomes (Creed & Bartrum, 2008). In this way, there is something to be learned from research showing that behaviour modelling workshops and control enhancing experiences can be effective in improving mastery and well-being (e.g. Eden & Aviram, 1993 and Vinokur & Schul, 1997). It is hoped that future research will identify ways of enhancing individuals' feelings of mastery through retirement interventions, and other initiatives, as a means of facilitating better retirement adjustment. Limitations and Future Research Directions Longitudinal Designs and Sampling With respect to the limitations of the current study, as with any cross-sectional research, the findings from this study present a static view of retirement adjustment (Moen, 1996). Longitudinal studies are required to enable more conclusive statements regarding the nature of the retirement process. For example, our results cannot rule out the possibility that poor retirement adjustment leads to reduced feelings of personal control and the perception of less favorable conditions of exit. In particular, future research employing longitudinal designs could investigate the causal direction and possible reciprocal relations between adjustment, mastery, conditions of exit, planning and health. This type of research will be particularly important for investigating the nature of the planning relationship with adjustment and mastery. In the current study participants were asked to retrospectively report the planning effort and behaviour they engaged in prior to retirement, which previous research suggests may be susceptible to memory biases (e.g. Henry, MacLeod, Phillips, & Crawford, 2004). Using time series analyses to investigate these constructs will enable researchers to gain a better understanding of the dynamics between the retirement transition and how changes in individuals and their environment vary over time. It would be particularly valuable to track planning prior to retirement, at the point of retirement and then for some time after retirement. This would enable us to determine whether pre-planning was sufficient, created unrealistic expectations or was treated as a static rather than dynamic process. Although the demographic characteristics of the current sample are comparable to previous retirement adjustment research (e.g. Wong & Earl, 2009), the sample was not entirely representative of the Australian general population of retirees (ABS, 2007). It is therefore recommended that future research seek participation from people with varied educational backgrounds, work histories including more labourers, technicians and tradespersons, and people who are not married or partnered. Mastery as an Antecedent versus Consequence of Retirement Adjustment As expected, the relationship between post-retirement planning and adjustment was mediated by mastery, such that individual's who engaged in more post-retirement planning, had higher feelings of mastery, which in turn predicted retirement adjustment. Previous research has found that mastery mediates the relationship between planning and life satisfaction in the general population (Prenda & Lachman, 2001). The current study demonstrates that this relationship is also evident in a retired population, such that mastery mediates the relationship between planning and adjustment in retirement. Given the paucity of research investigating the influence of mastery on retirement adjustment, future research should investigate the antecedents associated with feelings of mastery. It would be worthwhile determining changes in mastery across time, particularly the role of contextual factors that may leave people feeling vulnerable. Similarly, future research should examine whether mastery mediates the relationship between other variables previously considered to have a direct effect on retirement adjustment. For example, it may be that having poorer psychological health leaves people feeling fragile, leading to a lower sense of mastery, and thereby influencing their satisfaction with retirement. In relation to conditions of exit, future research could build on the current findings by investigating whether having control over specific aspects of the retirement transition are more important than others. Continuous Improvement of Retirement Planning Measures Clearly our research suggests that planning alone is not sufficient to guarantee adjustment to retirement, but it is important that comprehensive measures of planning continue to be used in research beyond financial and health concerns. Over time we may find that while some aspects of planning are static (e.g. financial) others are dynamic (e.g. social) and some of the sub-scales may predict adjustment better than others. While retirement benefits and support for retirees vary across countries, aging populations and the need for self sufficiency are global issues. While measures used in this study were designed for specific application with an Australian population, we believe that the three factor structure will have universal applications. More research will determine whether this is the case. The planning measure used in this study is available from the author and readers are directed to Muratore and Earl (2010) for more information. Pilot testing revealed that replicating the post-retirement planning measure with a five point response scale was confusing for participants, so the post-retirement planning measure was presented in the final survey with a dichotomous scale. However, this may have reduced the sensitivity of the measure, resulting in the lower internal consistency for post-retirement than pre-retirement planning measures in this study. Therefore, it is recommended that future research investigate post retirement planning behaviours using more sensitive measures of post-retirement planning efforts. The Role of Career Development Programs in Predicting Adjustment If conditions of exit and mastery both predict retirement adjustment the opportunity exists to determine what role career development programs play in developing these. Future studies may investigate whether support for career development programs in organizations predicts favorable conditions of exit and mastery. It seems reasonable to assume that organizations incorporating a life span perspective into their career development programs may be providing benefits to employees post-employment. Supporting and nurturing the employee beyond the exchange of skills for wages is consistent with organizations who care for the whole person and want to create a positive workplace culture. Furthermore trust may predict whether or not conversations take place between individuals and organizations about how and when employees exit the organisation. Trust may operate on two levels: at the supervisory and organizational level, and these may not always be consistent. It would be interesting to determine which of these conversations matter most and whether frequency and proximity to retirement make a difference. Concluding Comments The current study highlights the importance of considering factors beyond health, wealth and planning in order to gain a holistic understanding of retirement adjustment. Specifically, the present research highlights the critical role that other modifiable factors, such as more favorable conditions of exit, as well as a greater feeling of mastery, play in influencing satisfaction in retirement. To this end, individuals, organizations, career counsellors and psychologists all have an important role to play in promoting well-being in retirement.