نهاده های انرژی - رابطه عملکرد و تجزیه و تحلیل هزینه تولید کیوی در ایران
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|23382||2010||5 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||4219 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Renewable Energy, Volume 35, Issue 5, May 2010, Pages 1071–1075
This study examines energy consumption of inputs and output used in kiwifruit production, and to find relationship between energy inputs and yield in Mazandaran, Iran. For this purpose, the data were collected from 86 kiwifruit orchards which were selected based on random sampling method. The results indicated that total energy inputs were 30285.62 MJ ha−1. About 47% of this was generated by total fertilizer including farmyard manure, 28% from diesel fuel and machinery. About 70% of the total energy inputs used in kiwifruit production was indirect while only about 30% was direct. Econometric estimation results revealed that energy inputs of human labour, water for irrigation, total fertilizer and machinery contributed significantly to the yield. The impact of human labour energy (0.17) was found the highest among the other inputs in kiwifruit production. The results also showed that direct, indirect and renewable and non-renewable, energy forms had a positive impact on output level. Cost analysis showed that total cost of kiwifruit production was obtained as 6063.81 $ ha−1. The productivity (4.05 kg $−1) was obtained by dividing kiwifruit yield by total production cost.
Kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) is a commonly eaten fruit in certain countries. Kiwifruit originates from an indigenous plant of Southern China (Actinidia Chinensis) which was first developed commercially in New Zealand at the beginning of the 20th century . Iran is the 8th largest kiwifruit production after Italy, New Zealand, Chile, France, Greece, Japan and USA, respectively . The production of kiwifruit is about 20,000 tons/year in Iran and the cultivation land area is about 1,500 hectares in 2007 . Mazandaran province is one of the important producers of kiwifruit, today; about 71.46% of kiwifruit production in Iran is provided from this province . Energy use is one of the key indicators for developing more sustainable agricultural practices. Wider use of renewable energy sources, increase in energy supply and efficiency of use can make a valuable contribution to meet sustainable energy development targets . In agriculture, a wide range of modern and traditional energy forms are used directly on the farm, e.g. as tractor or machinery fuel, and in water pumping, irrigation and crop drying, and indirectly for fertilizers and pesticides. Other energy inputs are required for post harvest processing in food production, packaging, storage, transportation and cooking . The size of the population engaged in agriculture, the amount of arable land and the level of mechanization are the important factors that energy utilization in the agricultural sector depends to them . Energy productivity is an important index for more efficient use of energy although higher energy productivity does not mean in general, more economic feasibility. However, the energy analysis shows the methods to minimize the energy inputs and therefore to increase the energy productivity . Kizilaslan  studied energy use for cherries production in Turkey. For this purpose he calculated input–output energy, energy productivity and energy forms of direct, indirect, renewable and non-renewable. Strapatsa et al.  surveyed energy inputs for apple production to determine the most energy consuming operations. They carried out the study during 1999–2000 period at 26 apple orchards in Zagora Pelion (Central Greece). In a research Chile, energy consumption in the production of fruits was examined to improve the efficiency of its use. In this study the data were collected from 187 producers in 1992–1995 periods. Fruits investigated were grapes, raspberry, orange, lemon, plum, pear and apple . Singh et al.  investigated energy consumption in wheat production for five agro-climatic zones of Punjab. In this research, sensitivity of a particular energy input level on productivity was evaluated. Although many experimental works are conducted on energy use in agricultural crops , , , , , , ,  and , there are not any studies on the energy analysis of kiwifruit production in Iran. The main aim of this study is to analyze the energy use and evaluate the relationship between inputs and output for kiwifruit production and compare input energy use with input costs based on kiwifruit farms in Mazandaran, Iran.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
In this study, energy use of inputs and output in kiwifruit production were analyzed to estimate energy inputs and yield relationship in Mazandaran province of Iran. For this purpose, data were collected from 86 farms which were selected based on random sampling method. From the present study following conclusions are drawn: 1. The average of energy input in kiwifruit production was to be 30285.62 MJ ha−1, mainly due to total fertilizer (47.23%). 2. The energy use efficiency, energy productivity, specific energy, net energy and energy intensiveness of kiwifruit production were 1.54, 0.81 kg MJ−1, 1.23 MJ kg−1, 16354.23 MJ ha−1 and 4.99 MJ $−1, respectively. 3. Total mean energy input as direct, indirect, renewable and non-renewable forms were calculated to be 9010.45, 21275.17, 7713.00 and 22572.62 MJ ha−1, respectively. 4. According to econometric model evaluated, results revealed that human labour energy was the most significant input that influences on the production. The second important input was found as water for irrigation with 0.12 elasticity followed by total fertilizer and machinery with elasticity of 0.09 and 0.06, respectively. 5. The impacts of direct, indirect and renewable and non-renewable energies on yield were estimated as 0.11, 0.21, 0.10 and 0.32, respectively. 6. The benefit–cost ratio was found to be 1.94 in the result of economical analysis of kiwifruit production. The mean net return and productivity from kiwifruit production was obtained as 5699.97 $ ha−1 and 4.05 kg $−1, respectively.