فرسک، یک کد ساده برای تجزیه و تحلیل هزینه نیروگاه های همجوشی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|23412||2013||11 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||محاسبه نشده|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Fusion Engineering and Design, Volume 88, Issue 12, December 2013, Pages 3141–3151
FRESCO (Fusion REactor Simplified COsts) is a code based on simplified models of physics, engineering and economical aspects of a TOKAMAK-like pulsed or steady-state fusion power plant. The experience coming from various aspects of ITER design, including selection of materials and operating scenarios, is exploited as much as possible. Energy production and plant power balance, including the recirculation requirements, are derived from two models of the PPCS European study, the helium cooled lithium/lead blanket model reactor (model AB) and the helium cooled ceramic one (model B). A detailed study of the availability of the power plant due, among others, to the replacement of plasma facing components, is also included in the code. The economics of the fusion power plant is evaluated through the levelized cost approach. Costs of the basic components are scaled from the corresponding values of the ITER project, the ARIES studies and SCAN model. The costs of plant auxiliaries, including those of the magnetic and electric systems, tritium plants, instrumentation, buildings and thermal energy storage if any, are recovered from ITER values and from those of other power plants. Finally, the PPCS models AB and B are simulated and the main results are reported in this paper.
ITER will be the first fusion device with a reactor relevant Q value and extended burn. The principal physics goals will be to achieve inductively driven plasmas, with Q at least 10, for a range of operating parameters and to demonstrate steady state operations using non inductive current drive, with a Q at least 5. In order to reach these targets a reference physics operating scenario has been set up, namely the inductive operation scenario called ELMy H-mode. The recent theoretical developments of plasma scenarios, with active profile control and enhanced confinement regimes, represent a useful step forward towards DEMO and the commercial power plant. In particular these enhanced regimes will offer the perspective of investigating also pulsed operations, i.e. with either purely inductive or “hybrid” current drive. FRESCO (Fusion REactor Simplified COsts) is a computer code developed for rapid explorations of different scenarios, including the above mentioned inductive and hybrid operations, to be used as a tool for the conceptual designs of DEMO-like fusion stations. It is based on models for the evaluation of the physics, engineering and economical aspects of a TOKAMAK-like fusion power station, operating either in pulsed or steady-state options. Whenever possible, technical and economical parameters are derived and extrapolated from those of ITER , while design and operation key features of the power station components, not included in ITER, are derived from the PPCS models . In particular two different kinds of breeding blanket, namely the HCLL (Helium-cooled Lithium Lead) and HCPB (Helium-cooled Pebble Bed, ceramic/beryllium), are considered . Finally, the structure of the economic module for the evaluation of the cost of electricity is largely based on that developed by the ARIES team  and on the SCAN model . As described in Section 2, the main input data of FRESCO are the fusion power, aspect ratio, elongation, triangularity, temperature and density profiles, safety factor, maximum toroidal field at the coil conductors, blanket energy multiplication factor; hence the TOKAMAK inboard radial building can computed. The plasma electromagnetic parameters including the β control through the Troyon factor are recovered as described in Section 3. In Section 4 the main parameters related to the type of operation (steady state or pulsed) are outlined, including the definition of the plant availability factor; the maximum allowable number of cycles in case of pulsed operation is also evaluated according to the S–N fatigue curves over the operational power plant life which is given as input. The magnetic flux balance and the thermal power balance equations are discussed in Sections 5 and 6. In particular the iteration procedures adopted to choose the operative parameters of the ramp up and flat top (heating plus burn) phases are described. Section 7 deals with the power balance break down of the power station. Finally, in Section 8 the economics of the power plant are discussed and the levelized cost of electricity for different operating options is recovered.