تقسیم بندی بازار بنگاه به بنگاه
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|23449||2001||14 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||6660 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Industrial Marketing Management, Volume 30, Issue 6, August 2001, Pages 473–486
This article discusses the characteristics of industrial markets in relation to some of the major industrial market segmentation models. To understand the different market situations, we describe a scale with simple market transactions at one end and complex relationship management at the other, suggesting that the segmentation approach must be different for each end of the spectrum. The article presents a general industrial segmentation model directed towards situations characterized by relationships and networks. The model stresses the importance of having a deep understanding of the customers' characteristics, needs, future directions, as well as identification of what kind of overall relationship is required by the customer. This model involves identifying, selecting, and monitoring of segments.
Segmentation is a crucial activity in marketing, but the way it is viewed has changed over time. Some authors view segmentation as being closely related to another of marketing's major thoughts, the marketing concept . The essence of the marketing concept is that the best way to address the customer is by satisfying their needs and wants. These needs and wants thus need to be fully understood, and several ways exist to collect and analyze the necessary information. Which ways are used depends on the guiding methodology and techniques applied, but statistical analysis approaches are the most common. Other authors do not see segmentation as a statistical analysis technique, but as a tool for resource allocation. They regard segmentation as an overall way of identifying different target groups (for the purpose of making some general strategic decisions, such as which businesses the company should be in and how resources should be allocated) . A major question is therefore whether or not both points should be addressed at the same time. In principle, segmentation is about identifying and targeting customer groups through their needs and wants, as well as determining which customers and needs will be addressed and with what manner and intensity . The industrial market often is characterized by cooperation between customer and supplier; with the supplier thus having in-depth knowledge of the customer's needs and wants. When it is known beforehand that customers are interested in such collaborative relationships, this desire can be used as a segmentation base. In connection with Wind and Cardozo's micro and macro segmentation model , they talk about the influence different combinations of decision units (buying center) can have on the market segmentation. They, however, do not directly mention the relevance of the buyers' attitude to collaboration as a segmentation base. Another approach is represented by Bonoma and Shapiro  in their nested approach. They do not explicitly talk about using the customers' attitude to collaborative relationships as segmentation base either. However, within the framework of the nested approach, it is possible to use questions about the customer's interest in collaborative work, because either the purchasing strategy or the buying center can be used as a segmentation base. This article develops an analytical framework that explicitly presents the opportunity to use the customers intentions towards collaboration with the supplier as a segmentation base.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
This article has outlined some new areas of segmentation. First, the article suggests that it is important to realize where the market situation stands on a scale with simple market transactions at one end and complex relationship management at the other. Second, it suggests that segmentation for the two different situations must be based upon two different approaches. Relationship management needs a deep understanding of the customers characteristics, needs, and future directions, whereas this same information would be too time consuming to collect and too comprehensive to use for the simple identification of similar customer needs and wants, as needed when segmenting for simple market transaction situations. Third, the article suggests that the segmentation task should be to identify what kind of overall relationship the customer requires, and then to investigate the needs and wants of each type of interaction. Fourth, segment identification must conform to the kind of overall relationship and the needs and wants of the particular type of interaction. The selection of the segments should include how well companies, within a particular segment, match the company making the segmentation. Fifth, turbulence in the market makes it important to have a system for continuously monitoring and scanning for changes in the markets and in close relationships of strategic importance. Finally, segmentation has value on more than just strategic level. The outline above is only a step in the development of a framework for a dynamic strategic industrial marketing segmentation model. Its applicability still needs to be proven and further developed for specific situations.